Use the videos, media, reference materials, and other resources in this collection to teach about ancient Greece, its role in modern-day democracy, and civic engagement. Campaigns were often timed with the agricultural season to impact the enemies or enemies' crops and harvest. As the Thebans attempted to expand their influence over Boeotia, they inevitably incurred the ire of Sparta. Toxotès (GR): archer. The losses in the ten years of the Theban hegemony left all the Greek city-states weakened and divided. This page was last edited on 22 December 2020, at 03:19. Legion, a military organization, originally the largest permanent organization in the armies of ancient Rome. DEA / G. NIMATALLAH / Getty Images. Ravaging the countryside took much effort and depended on the season because green crops do not burn as well as those nearer to harvest. Stratia (GR): army. Hoplites were armored infantrymen, armed with spears and shields, and the phalanx was a formation of these soldiers with their shields locked together and spears pointed forward. Sekunda, Nick, Elite 7: The Ancient Greeks, Oxford: Osprey, 1986. Hekatontarchès (GR): ‘commander of hundred’; officer. Skolops (GR): palisade stake. Thoorakitès (GR): soldier wearing body armour. Many of these would have been mercenary troops, hired from outlying regions of Greece. Aspidiskè (GR): small shield. Chalkaspis (GR): bronze shield. Skytalis (GR): ‘little stick’; Spartan ‘dogtags’ made of a wooden identification sign. Toxon (GR): bow. Raising such a large army had denuded Athens of defenders, and thus any attack in the Athenian rear would cut off the Army from the City. Petasos (GR): hat. Peltophoros (GR): 'shieldbearer'; soldier armed with light shield. Phylè (GR): tribe. Politès (GR): citizen; man enjoying citizenship. They were known as hoplites because of the shield that they used to protect them. Eventually, these types effectively complemented the Macedonian style phalanx which prevailed throughout Greece after Alexander the Great. With revolutionary tactics, King Phillip II brought most of Greece under his sway, paving the way for the conquest of "the known world" by his son Alexander the Great. Alexander's fame is in no small part due to his success as a battlefield tactician; the unorthodox gambits he used at the battles of Issus and Gaugamela were unlike anything seen in Ancient Greece before. Nevertheless, it was an important innovation, one which was developed much further in later conflicts. Amphippos (GR): cavalryman with two mounts. Agora - The agora was the central meeting place in Ancient Greek cities. The remainder of the wars saw the Greeks take the fight to the Persians. Stratègos (GR): general; commander. This inevitably reduced the potential duration of campaigns, as citizens would need to return to their professions (especially in the case of farmers). Hekatontarchia (GR): ‘unit of hundred’; military unit; company. Taxis: (1) battle order; (2) military unit; regiment. The eventual triumph of the Greeks was achieved by alliances of many city-states (the exact composition changing over time), allowing the pooling of resources and division of labour. Pylooros (GR): gate keeper. Dathapatish (PE): 'commander of ten'; squad leader. The eventual triumph of the Greeks was achieved by alliances of many city-states (the exact composition changing over time), allowing the pooling of resources and division of labour. Pages in category "Ancient Greek military terminology" Cataphract Chalkaspides Chiliarch Companion cavalry To fight the enormous armies of the Achaemenid Empire was effectively beyond the capabilities of a single city-state. Much more lightly armored, the Macedonian phalanx was not so much a shield-wall as a spear-wall. As the Thebans were joined by many erstwhile Spartan allies, the Spartans were powerless to resist this invasion. Arstibara (PE): ‘spearbearers’; Persian guardsmen. The rise of Macedon and her successors thus sounded the death knell for the distinctive way of war found in Ancient Greece; and instead contributed to the 'superpower' warfare which would dominate the ancient world between 350 and 150 BC. Zygios (GR): middle level oarsman on a trireme. Although the Spartans did not attempt to rule all of Greece directly, they prevented alliances of other Greek cities, and forced the city-states to accept governments deemed suitable by Sparta. The centre and right were staggered backwards from the left (an 'echelon' formation), so that the phalanx advanced obliquely. A crafty and capable warrior, Odysseus was the king of Ithaca. To fight the enormous armies of the Achaemenid Empire was effectively beyond the capabilities of a single city-state. Evolving from armed bands led by a warrior leader, city militia of part-time soldiers, providing their own equipment and perhaps including all the citizens of the city-state or polis, began to move warfare away from the control of private individuals and into the realm of the state. More Greek Architecture Greek Military This is a catapult, a Greek invention. Dekania (GR): ‘unit of ten’; file; squad. Persia switched sides, which ended the war, in return for the cities of Ionia and Spartan non-interference in Asia Minor. Periplous (GR): naval encircling manoeuvre. Teichos (GR): wall. Since the soldiers were citizens with other occupations, warfare was limited in distance, season and scale. it’s A 28 letters crossword definition. Drepanon (GR): battle-scythe. Sagaris (GR): battle-axe. The peace treaty which ended the war, effectively restored the status quo ante bellum, although Athens was permitted to retain some of the territory it had regained during the war. Homozygos (GR): soldier from the same rank. Taxiarchos: senior military officer; Greek equivalent of Roman tribunus. Hippotoxotès (GR): horse archer. Hèmilochitès (GR): half-file-leader; NCO. Parke, Herbert W., Greek Mercenary Soldiers: From the Earliest Times to the Battle of Ipsus, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1970. Syskènios (GR): ‘tent partner’; Spartan member of military mess association. Snodgrass, A., "The Hoplite Reform and History," Journal of Hellenic Studies, Vol. Hoplon (GR): weapon, both offensive and defensive; note this word is often used in modern literature as a technical term for the hoplite shield when in fact this was by no means the case in Antiquity. Hoplomachos (GR): weapons or drill instructor. Shipbuilders would also experience sudden increases in their production demands. Hippos (GR): horse. Hipparchia (GR): cavalry regiment. History comes alive when Pressfield discusses the battles and city-states of ancient Greece. He took the development of the phalanx to its logical completion, arming his 'phalangites' (for they were assuredly not hoplites) with a fearsome 6 m (20 ft) pike, the 'sarissa'. Tresantès (GR): coward. Peltarion (GR): light shield. Finally Phillip sought to establish his own hegemony over the southern Greek city-states, and after defeating the combined forces of Athens and Thebes, the two most powerful states, at the Battle of Chaeronea in 338 BC, succeeded. Miles legionis: soldier belonging to a legion; legionary. Es cheiras (GR): ‘at grips’; in close combat. Neodamoodès (GR): newly enfranchised Spartan. Synthèmaton (GR): watchword. Agoogè (GR): Spartan upbringing. Soldiers with Delta Company line up to take part in morning team development exercises Nov. 7, … 1194 BCE: Trojan War: The Trojan war between the Greeks and the Trojans (inhabitants of Troy) began 167–200. Grosphos (GR): javelin. Most Greek Mythology was written by poets, like Homer, and as the spiritual sustenance for its people, dance communicated its wisdom and truth as effectively as words. Paramèridion (GR): (1) side-arm; (2) thigh armour. Koilembolos (GR): hollow wedge formation. Aretè (GR): virtue; valour; martial distinction. From the start, the mismatch in the opposing forces was clear. Monomachia (GR): single combat. Parapleuridion (GR): armoured horse trapping. Katalogos (GR): mustering list. Once firmly unified, and then expanded, by Phillip II, Macedon possessed the resources that enabled it to dominate the weakened and divided states in southern Greece. Hippeus (GR): ‘horseman’ or ‘knight’: (1) cavalryman; (2) elite infantryman; title of picked Spartan hoplite. Hèmithoorakion (GR): ‘half-armour’; body armour covering the breast only. Marathon demonstrated to the Greeks the lethal potential of the hoplite, and firmly demonstrated that the Persians were not, after all, invincible. Parexeiresia (GR): outrigger. Skène (GR): tent; barracks building. Oothismos aspidoon (GR): ‘shield shoving’ or ‘shield pushing’; the sort of rugby scrummage which followed the clash of two phalanges (GR) when neither of them broke under the first charge. [6] Once one of the lines broke, the troops would generally flee from the field, chased by peltasts or light cavalry if available. Exoomis (GR): sleeveless tunic fastened at the shoulders. Ilè basilikè (GR): 'royal squadron'; elite unit of Macedonian hetairoi (GR) cavalry, possibly of larger size than other ilai (GR). When exactly the phalanx developed is uncertain, but it is thought to have been developed by the Argives in their early clashes with the Spartans. Stratègion (LA): commander's tent. Ancient Greek politics, philosophy, art and scientific achievements greatly influenced Western civilizations today. Many Greeks city-states, having had plenty of warning of the forthcoming invasion, formed an anti-Persian league; though as before, other city-states remained neutral or allied with Persia. They also restored the capability of organized warfare between these Poleis (as opposed to small-scale raids to acquire livestock and grain, for example). It was a period of political, philosophical, artistic, and scientific achievements that formed a legacy with unparalleled influence on Western civilization. This established a lasting Macedonian hegemony over Greece, and allowed Phillip the resources and security to launch a war against the Persian Empire. Diastèma (GR): interval. Campaigns would therefore often be restricted to summer. Almost simultaneously, the allied fleet defeated the remnants of the Persian navy at Mycale, thus destroying the Persian hold on the islands of the Aegean. Lochos (GR): (1) military unit; (2) file of men. Dekarchos (GR): ‘leader of ten’; junior officer; squad leader. Following this victory, the Thebans first secured their power-base in Boeotia, before marching on Sparta. Speira (GR): military unit. Plunder was also a large part of war and this allowed for pressure to be taken off of the government finances and allowed for investments to be made that would strengthen the polis. Born in Pella in 356 BC, Alexander was tutored by Aristotle until the age of 16. Stratègika (GR): generalship. At least in the early classical period, hoplites were the primary force; light troops and cavalry generally protected the flanks and performed skirmishing, acting as support troops for the core heavy infantry. Kranos (GR): helmet. Pelekys (GR): battle-axe or warhammer. These included javelin throwers (akontistai), stone throwers (lithovoloi) and slingers (sfendonitai) while archers (toxotai) were rare, mainly from Crete, or mercenary non-Greek tribes (as at the crucial battle of Plataea 479 B.C.) Hazarapatish (PE): ‘commander of a thousand’; Persian officer. Aichmophoros (GR): spearbearer. A hoplite was the name given to the soldiers who were appointed in the ancient Greek’s city states. Mechanè (GR): siege engine. The increased manpower and financial resources increased the scale, and allowed the diversification of warfare. Sitèresion (GR): ration allowance. At the decisive Battle of Leuctra (371 BC), the Thebans routed the allied army. Tropaion (GR): trophy; commemorative victory sign erected to mark the turning of the tide of battle. The rise of Athens and Sparta during this conflict led directly to the Peloponnesian War, which saw diversification of warfare. Milex: soldier. The battle is famous for the tactical innovations of the Theban general Epaminondas. In the aftermath, the Spartans were able to establish themselves as the dominant force in Greece for three decades. Pezon (GR): infantry. Chitoon (GR): tunic. The Army of Alexander the Great led to the rise of the city-states (Poleis). Rhoomaios (GR): Roman. Hornblower, Simon, "Sticks, Stones, and Spartans: The Sociology of Spartan Violence," in Hans van Wees, War and Violence in Ancient Greece, London and Swansea: Duckworth and the Classical Press of Wales, 2000, pp. Telamoon: carrying strap. One example of their legacy is the Olympic Games. The Spartan hegemony would last another 16 years, until, at the Battle of Leuctra (371) the Spartans were decisively defeated by the Theban general Epaminondas. For instance, the Agrianes from Thrace were well-renowned peltasts, whilst Crete was famous for its archers. Hypomeioon (GR): 'inferior'; second grade citizen; Spartan lacking full rights as homoios but still subject to military service obligation. The peace treaty which ended the Peloponnesian War left Sparta as the de facto ruler of Greece (hegemon). Kybernètès (GR): helmsman. Grosphomachos (GR): skirmisher equipped with javelins. This glossary offers an explanation of Greek (GR) and a few Persian (PE) terms and expressions associated with ancient Greek warfare. 57–82. If a hoplite escaped, he would sometimes be forced to drop his cumbersome aspis, thereby disgracing himself to his friends and family. Antilabè (GR): grip of a shield. Pezhetairos (GR): ‘foot companion’; Macedonian heavy infantryman. Amongst the allies therefore, Athens was able to form the core of a navy, whilst other cities, including Sparta, provided the army. The Athenians thus avoided battle on land, since they could not possibly win, and instead dominated the sea, blockading the Peloponnesus whilst maintaining their trade. Uprooting trees was especially effective given the Greek reliance on the olive crop and the long time it takes new olive trees to reach maturity. Polemarchos (GR): senior officer. Wheeler, E., "The General as Hoplite," in Hanson, Victor D., (ed. These developments ushered in the period of Archaic Greece (800–480 BC). Encheiridion (GR): dagger. Sèmeiophoros (GR): standard-bearer. Stratopedeusis (GR): naval formation. Stratiootès (GR): soldier. Pentèkontoros (GR): galley with fifty oarsmen on one level. Ancient Greek military power. It could throw 300 pound stones at walls and buildings Greek Military This is a hoplite, a Greek infantry soldier. Tensions resulting from this, and the rise of Athens and Sparta as pre-eminent powers during the war led directly to the Peloponnesian War, which saw further development of the nature of warfare, strategy and tactics. [citation needed] The Persians had acquired a reputation for invincibility, but the Athenian hoplites proved crushingly superior in the ensuing infantry battle. Katoikos (GR): fief holder; military settler; soldier granted land to support himself. Kèryx (GR): herald. Hèlootès (GR): helot; serf from the subjugated population of the Spartan state. Mora (GR): Spartan military unit. Stratopedeusis (GR): naval formation. Pyrgos (GR): tower. Teichos: wall. Gymnès (GR): light-armed skirmisher. Thebes is a town in central Greece which has been continuously inhabited for five millennia. Polyandreion (GR): mass grave. Triakas (GR): military unit. Kopidion (GR): slashing knife. By the age of thirty, he had created one of the largest empires of the ancient world, stretching from the Ionian Sea to the Himalayas. Parazoonion (GR): shortsword; dagger. Sphendonètès (GR): slinger. Proptoosis (GR): levelling of spears to the front of the battle-line. This was the first major challenge Sparta faced. According to the map of Ancient Greece, what gulf separates the Balkan Peninsula and Pelopennesus? The second Persian invasion is famous for the battles of Thermopylae and Salamis. Here are five of the ancient Greek battles that forever altered the course of human culture and progress: Greek Wars: The Battle of Marathon, 490 BC The Battle of Marathon, which took place during the first Persian invasion of Greece, was fought between the combined forces of Athens and Plataea against King Darius’ Persian army. Fisher, Nick, "Hybris, Revenge and Stasis in the Greek City-States," in Hans van Wees, War and Violence in Ancient Greece, London and Swansea: Duckworth and the Classical Press of Wales, 2000, pp. Pezakontistès (GR): infantry skirmisher; javelineer. The Athenian general Iphicrates had his troops make repeated hit and run attacks on the Spartans, who, having neither peltasts nor cavalry, could not respond effectively. All Greek words have been transcribed in the Latin alphabet. Kardaka (PE): Kurdish soldier. Metabolè (GR): about-face. Ekdromos (GR): 'out runner'; hoplite leaving the phalanx (GR) formation to chase light troops. Argyraspis (GR): ‘silvershield’; title of Macedonian infantry guard which is probably identical with the hypaspistai (GR). The Chigi vase, dated to around 650 BC, is the earliest depiction of a hoplite in full battle array. Ploion makron (GR): longship; warship. However, the lightly armored Persian infantry proved no match for the heavily armored hoplites, and the Persian wings were quickly routed. Pelekophoros (GR): axe-man. Schèma (GR): disposition; formation. Sèma (GR): standard. Sileraioi were also a group of ancient mercenaries most likely employed by the tyrant Dionysius I of Syracuse. Hyparchos (GR): officer. Cavalry had always existed in Greek armies of the classical era but the cost of horses made it far more expensive than hoplite armor, limiting cavalrymen to nobles and the very wealthy (social class of hippeis). The scale and scope of warfare in Ancient Greece changed dramatically as a result of the Greco-Persian Wars. Demoralised, Xerxes returned to Asia Minor with much of his army, leaving his general Mardonius to campaign in Greece the following year (479 BC). Agrianos (GR): elite light infantryman. Sarissa (GR): pike; Macedonian heavy thrusting spear used by both mounted troops and infantry. Alalazoo (GR): to raise a battle cry. In non-military use,it was "a voluntary attitude of giving in, cooperating, assumingresponsibility, and carrying a burden". Dimoiria (GR): ‘two quarters’; half-file. Rhomphaia (GR): slashing blade; falchion. Following the eventual defeat of the Athenians in 404 BC, and the disbandment of the Athenian-dominated Delian League, Ancient Greece fell under the hegemony of Sparta. It also allowed a higher proportion of the soldiers to be actively engaged in combat at a given time (rather than just those in the front rank). Spina (LA): reinforcing spine on shield. Gerrhon (GR): wicker shield. Bandaka (PE): 'bondsmen' or 'retainers'. Rhipsaspia (GR): the discarding of the shield; common practice for those wishing to leave the fighting in a hurry. During the early hoplite era cavalry played almost no role whatsoever, mainly for social, but also tactical reasons, since the middle-class phalanx completely dominated the battlefield. Kara (PE): host; army. After his assassination, this war was prosecuted by his son Alexander the Great, and resulted in the takeover of the whole Achaemenid Empire by the Macedonians. Anabasis (GR): march inland. Elephantos (GR): elephant. Embolon (GR): (1) wedge formation; (2) ship’s beak or ram. 85, 1965, pp. Exeligmos Makedonikos (GR): ‘Macedonian counter-march’; manoeuvre in which the file-leader does an about-face on the spot and the rear-rankers counter-march to form up behind him. The Greco-Persian Wars (499–448 BC) were the result of attempts by the Persian Emperor Darius the Great, and then his successor Xerxes I to subjugate Ancient Greece. Fighting in the tight phalanx formation maximised the effectiveness of his armor, large shield and long spear, presenting a wall of armor and spearpoints to the enemy. Epikouros (GR): auxiliary. Phalanx (GR): ‘stick’; (1) small group of promachoi; (2) close-order military formation of heavy infantrymen equipped with thrusting spears and shields. Akropolis (GR): citadel; fortified part of a city. Strateuma (GR): military campaign. Delbruck, Hans, Warfare in Antiquity, History of the Art of War, Volume 1, Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1990. Peltastès (GR): shieldbearing javelineer. The major innovation in the development of the hoplite seems to have been the characteristic circular shield (Aspis), roughly 1 m (3.3 ft) in diameter, and made of wood faced with bronze. Although alliances between city states occurred before this time, nothing on this scale had been seen before. Prometoopidion (GR): chamfron; horse armour for protection of the head. Kardax (GR): either 'warrior' or 'household soldier'; Persian mercenary soldier. The chigi vase, dated to around 650 BC, is the earliest depiction of a hoplite in full battle array. Psilos (GR): light equipped soldier; skirmisher. With more resources available, he was able to assemble a more diverse army, including strong cavalry components. Baivarabam (PE): 'unit of ten thousand'; Persian military unit cf Greek term myrias. Militaris: military. Polis (GR): city state. Misthos (GR): pay. Speira (GR): military unit. There was increased emphasis on navies, sieges, mercenaries and economic warfare. The term legion also denotes the military system by which imperial Rome conquered and ruled the ancient world. Military structure and methods in ancient Greece, The rise of Macedon and the end of the hoplite era, Learn how and when to remove this template message, the end of the distinctive hoplite battle in Ancient Greece, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ancient_Greek_warfare&oldid=995642132, Articles lacking in-text citations from February 2018, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2013, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from February 2013, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2015, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2010, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Metalepsis (GR): change of grip on a spear. Click to go to the page with all the answers to Mystic words July 3 2017. Enoomotia (GR): ‘sworn band’; military unit. Greek armies also included significant numbers of light infantry, the Psiloi, as support troops for the heavy hoplites, who also doubled as baggage handlers for the heavy foot. Phalangitès (GR): phalangite; infantryman in Macedonian-type phalanx (GR). The city-states of southern Greece were too weak to resist the rise of the Macedonian kingdom in the north. Thoorax (GR): body armour. Automolos (GR): deserter. Chiliarchia (GR): ‘unit of thousand’; military unit. Dromos (GR): charge on the run. Tès hippou stratègos: ‘general of the cavalry’; cf. Trièrarchos (GR): (1) captain commanding a trireme; (2) wealthy citizen providing a trireme at his cost. Stratia (GR): army. Tagos (GR): Thessalian commander-in-chief. Gradually, and especially during the Peloponnesian war, cavalry became more important acquiring every role that cavalry could play, except perhaps frontal attack. Darius was already ruler of the cities of Ionia, and the wars are taken to start when they rebelled in 499 BC. Lineothoorax (GR): linen corselet. Democracy was born at the agora in Athens. [2] The Phalanx also became a source of political influence because men had to provide their own equipment to be a part of the army. Syssitios (GR): ‘dining companion’; Spartan member of military mess association. Saurootèr (GR): butt-spike. Because hoplites were all protected by their own shield and others’ shields and spears, they were relatively safe as long as the formation didn't break. Syllochismos (GR): deployment by file. 201–232. Harpagè (GR): looting; plundering. Thanvabara (PE): archers; bowmen. Sekunda, Nick, Elite 66: The Spartan Army, Oxford: Osprey, 1998. Sphagia (GR): pre-battle sacrifice. Keleusthès (GR): naval officer responsible for setting and maintaining the rowing speed. The fractious nature of Ancient Greek society seems to have made continuous conflict on this larger scale inevitable. To this end, the Greeks were able to lure the Persian fleet into the straits of Salamis; and, in a battleground where Persian numbers again counted for nothing, they won a decisive victory, justifying Themistocles' decision to build the Athenian fleet. Syskènion (GR): ‘tent party’; Spartan military mess association. Tetrarchès (GR): commander of four files. An Athenian army of c. 10,000 hoplites marched to meet the Persian army of about 25,000 troops[citation needed]. Leiden/Boston: Brill, 2018. Nikè (GR): victory. Epibatès (GR): marine. But this was unstable, and the Persian Empire sponsored a rebellion by the combined powers of Athens, Thebes, Corinth and Argos, resulting in the Corinthian War (395–387 BC). Akontion (GR): missile; projectile. Although tactically there was little innovation in the Peloponessian War, there does appear to have been an increase in the use of light infantry, such as peltasts (javelin throwers) and archers. The Spartans did not feel strong enough to impose their will on a shattered Athens. Sarissophoros (GR): ‘pikeman’; (1) soldier armed with a sarissa (GR); (2) alternative title for Macedonian prodromos (GR). It was made up of lots of smaller states. Doryphoros (GR): (1) spearman; (2) guard. Naus (GR): ship. The Greek wings then turned against the elite troops in the Persian centre, which had held the Greek centre until then. Katapeltaphetès (GR): (1) artilleryman; (2) artillery instructor. Logas (GR): picked soldier. Protaxis (GR): skirmishing line; covering force. Gastraphetès (GR): ‘belly bow’; heavy crossbow/light catapult. Regardless of where it developed, the model for the hoplite army evidently quickly spread throughout Greece. Euzonos (GR): light infantryman . Proknèmis (GR): greave. 'Hoplite' can be translated as 'man-at-arms'. Strateuma (GR): military campaign. To counter the massive numbers of Persians, the Greek general Miltiades ordered the troops to be spread across an unusually wide front, leaving the centre of the Greek line undermanned. Mèlophoros (GR): ‘apple bearer’; a Persian guard using a round counterweight on the spear. Anderson, J. K., Ancient Greek Horsemanship, Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1961. Perioikos (GR): ‘one living about’; ally. Wandering tribes begin to settle in Greece: 1600 BCE: Mycenaean Greece: Bronze Age Greece was inhabited by the Mycenaean people. Answer: Sparta. Always start with the simple meaning. Connolly, Peter, Greece and Rome at War, London: Greenhill Books, 1998. One major reason for Phillip's success in conquering Greece was the break with Hellenic military traditions that he made. Defying convention, he strengthened the left flank of the phalanx to an unheard of depth of 50 ranks, at the expense of the centre and the right. Theme: Greek Military The themes represented throughout Gates of Fire, by Steven Pressfield, give us an idea as to how Greek society operated and what they valued. The Greek navy, despite their lack of experience, also proved their worth holding back the Persian fleet whilst the army still held the pass. Drepanèphoros (GR): scythed chariot. They were a force to be reckoned with. Now it’s time to pass on to the other puzzles. However, these kingdoms were still enormous states, and continued to fight in the same manner as Phillip and Alexander's armies had. Thyreophoros (GR): ‘shield-bearer’; skirmisher equipped with large shield. Gorytos (GR): (1) quiver; (2) combined bowcase and quiver. Pronomè (GR): foraging expedition. Hamippos (GR): infantry skirmisher fighting mixed with the cavalry. Paragoogè (GR): march in line. Exeligmos Lakoonikos (GR): ‘Laconian counter-march’; manoeuvre in which the file-closer does an about-face on the spot and the file-leader leads his men past the file-closer. Xenos (GR): ‘foreigner’; mercenary. Engels, Donald, Alexander the Great and the Logistics of the Macedonian Army, Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1978. There are other daily puzzles for July 3 2017 Mystic Words: Ancient Greek military power Mystic words; Noisy opposition Mystic words The remaining Athenian fleet was thereby forced to confront the Spartans, and were decisively defeated. The Athenians were at a significant disadvantage both strategically and tactically. The defeat of a hoplite army in this way demonstrates the changes in both troops and tactic which had occurred in Greek Warfare. The Phalanx therefore presented a shield wall and a mass of spear points to the enemy, making frontal assaults much more difficult. After the loss of Athenian ships and men in the Sicilian expedition, Sparta was able to foment rebellion amongst the Athenian league, which therefore massively reduced the ability of the Athenians to continue the war. Although both sides suffered setbacks and victories, the first phase essentially ended in stalemate, as neither league had the power to neutralise the other. Skytale (GR): ‘stick’; (1) broken half of a stick used to verify the origin of a message; (2)Spartan ‘dogtags’ made of a wooden identification sign. However, such were the losses of Theban manpower, including Epaminondas himself, that Thebes was thereafter unable to sustain its hegemony. This alliance thus removed the constraints on the type of armed forces that the Greeks could use. Acropolis - An acropolis is a fortified citadel within a larger city. When this was combined with the primary weapon of the hoplite, 2–3 m (6.6–9.8 ft) long spear (the doru), it gave both offensive and defensive capabilities. Machimos (GR): indigenous Egyptian soldier. Hoplitès (GR): heavy armed soldier; hoplite. Hèmilochion (GR): half-file. The war (or wars, since it is often divided into three periods) was for much of the time a stalemate, punctuated with occasional bouts of activity. When advancing towards an enemy, the phalanx would break into a run that was sufficient to create momentum but not too much as to lose cohesion. Hoplite armor was extremely expensive for the average citizen, so it was commonly passed down from the soldier's father or relative. Sekunda, Nick, Warrior 27: Greek Hoplite 480–323 BC, Oxford: Osprey, 2000. One of the most famous troop of Greek cavalry was the Tarantine cavalry, originating from the city-state of Taras in Magna Graecia.[8]. : galley with fifty oarsmen on either two or three levels of rowers gastraphetès ( GR ): ‘belly ;... Been seen before when battles occurred, they inevitably incurred the ire of.... Cavalry ’ ; cf the page with all the answers to Mystic July! 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