Leaf drop in fall may begin in late September in cooler regions and not until November in southern areas.[5]. Besides collecting the walnuts, we also tap our black walnut trees to make syrup. Black walnut (Juglans nigra) can poison horses, dogs and perhaps other species. Black walnut is more resistant to frost than the English or Persian walnut, but thrives best in the warmer regions of fertile, lowland soils with high water tables, although it will also grow in drier soils, but much more slowly. However, in the smaller-scale home landscape, the leaves and fruits are considered by some to be a messy nuisance. It grows mostly in riparian zones, from southern Ontario, west to southeast South Dakota, south to Georgia, northern Florida and southwest to central Texas. About 65% of the annual wild harvest comes from the U.S. state of Missouri, and the largest processing plant is operated by Hammons Products in Stockton, Missouri. In forests and plantations, the tree may reach 150' tall with a well formed trunk and lower limbs self pruned from « to 2/3 the distance from the ground. I despise these trees. However, if the husk looks like it’s only just started to break apart, you can get away with collecting the nut. It needs to be sited with care, since the tree produces a chemical that is toxic to some other plants. It prefers these soils because they hold large quantities of water, which the tree draws from during rainless periods. Help! It's at least 110 years old. BONUS: You’ll also receive our Almanac Companion newsletter! However, I love it and will continue to nurture it. ), which suck the juices from leaves and often deposit a sticky substance called "honey-dew" on the leaf surface that may turn black and prevent photosynthesis; and the walnut lace bug (Corythucha juglandis), which causes damage when the adults and nymphs suck the sap from the lower surfaces of walnut leaflets. [25], The walnut weevil (Conotrachelus retentus) grows to 5 millimetres (3⁄16 in) long as an adult. I have 3 very old trees in my yard and was thinking of getting rid of some. It will grow in closed forests, but is classified as shade intolerant; this means it requires full sun for optimal growth and nut production. The aggressive competitive strategy of black walnut such as its fast growth, alleopathic chemicals, and rodent-dispersed seeds, have also contributed. Allow the freshly removed nutmeat to dry for a day before storing. The eggs are laid in fruits in the spring and summer. ThoughtCo / Steve Nix. What should I do? Most walnut tree owners have a love/hate relationship because of the fruit which the tree drops in late summer though October. A similar group for more northern climates would be Sparrow, S127, and Mintle. You may have to cut them down a few times before they stop coming back. Its western range extends all the way to the eastern Great Plains, after which climate conditions become too dry for it. We would gather the green nuts and pile them under the tree. If you’re willing to do the work of cracking the outer shell, the “meat” inside is edible, as the squirrels will attest; squirrels have little problem chewing through the shells. A wide-branched tree reaching heights between 70 and 150 feet, the Black Walnut does well in open fields, on sloped land and a diversity of planting sites so long as the soil is well drained and nutrient dense. Submitted by Jan on August 21, 2020 - 8:34am. Several older varieties, such as Kwik Krop, are still in cultivation; while they make decent nuts, they would not be recommended for commercial planting. Leafout in spring is initiated when daytime highs reach approximately 70°F (21°C) and leaf drop in fall when daytime highs fall below 65°F (15°C). Cranz, Thomas, and Neel #1 make a good pollination trio. I have to say that I love squirrels...but am not too happy about walnut trees coming up in my garden. The toxic effects of a mature bl… And the rich, flavorful nuts are enjoyed fresh and retain their flavor and texture during cooking. Black walnut is one of the most abundant trees in the eastern US, particularly the Northeast, and its numbers are increasing due to epidemics that have affected other tree species, including emerald ash borer, chestnut blight, butternut canker, wooly hemlock adelgid, dogwood anthracnose, Dutch elm disease, and Gypsy moth infestations. The fungus causes cankers that inhibit the movement of nutrients in black walnut, leading to crown and branch dieback, and ultimately death.[30]. Even if shavings get in their stall, it can kill them. Wonderful tree but I am told it can cause colic in horses? Black Walnut tree seedlings are cultivated across North America in tree plantations for its valuable wood. In 2004, DNA testing was used to solve one such poaching case, involving a 95-foot tree worth US $28,500 cut down from someone’s backyard while they were on holiday. Codling moth (Cydia pomonella) larvae eat walnut kernels, as well as apple and pear seeds. The nut goes through and the husk remains behind. Our property is a Certified Wildlife Habitat through the NWF (National Wildlife Foundation) & the tree provides part of the requirements for certification. [27], Important leaf sucking insects include species of aphids and plant lice including (Monellia spp. The infection spreads slowly but infected trees eventually die.[7]. Settlers snacked on the nutritious walnuts out of hand, added them to soups and stews, and ground them into meal for baking; the hard shells provided a perfect package for storing the nuts over winter. This would include many native trees such as black walnut, butternut, the hickories and pecan. Total lifespan of J. nigra is about 130 years. Yes we went to school with stained hands but so did other kids. It has a circumference of 3.50 m (11 ft 6 in), height of exactly 33.60 m (110.2 ft) (measured by laser), and was planted around 1850 (± 10 years). Sometimes black walnut is planted as part of reclaiming mines. A variety index and characteristics guide is available from Missouri Extension. They commonly grow to 50 feet or taller and about as wide, but specimens of more than 100 feet have been recorded. Your grandparents may have harvested the walnuts which can be eaten raw or added to baking (cookies and bars). In fewer instances, shedding pollen can cause allergic reactions in horses and people as well as kidney effects in animals that ingest hulls. It is one of the most valuable and fully utilized natural forest trees … The brownish-black dye was used by early American settlers to dye hair. I lived in my house in Toronto Canada for 10 years and thought her backyard tree was a chestnut tree I just found out it is a black walnut tree. Maggots can be serious for commercial walnut growers, who tend to use chemical treatments to prevent damage to the crop. Thud! When surrounded by other trees in the forest, black walnuts grow straight and tall with few, if any, lower branches. When a fruit is not available, two species can be differentiated based on the leaf scars, or the place where the leaf meets the stem: butternut has a leaf scar with a flat upper edge and with a velvety ridge above that flat part, but black walnut has an indented leaf scar with no hairy ridge.[6]. onto the pavement; then, when cars drive over and flatten them, they become ugly black 'pancakes' that last forever on the street. Consumers include black walnuts in traditional treats, such as cakes, cookies, fudge, and pies, during the fall holiday season. Black walnuts are wild walnuts that are native to North America. https://gardenerspath.com/plants/landscape-trees/black-walnut-juglone-toxicity Some of the juglone-tolerant plants listed in the article and in other sources are included on Morton Arboretum website. Submitted by Robert Russell on September 26, 2020 - 5:53pm. Horses are generally only affected by shavings made from the tree. Grafted, nut-producing trees are available from several nurseries operating in the U.S. Selections worth considering include Thomas, Neel #1, Thomas Myers, Pounds #2, Stoker, Surprise, Emma K, Sparrow, S127, and McGinnis. In contrast to the English walnuts that you find in most grocery stores, black walnuts have a stronger flavor and are more difficult to break out of their shells. They are pretty much disease-free and are threatened by few pests. Then we would spread them out to dry and crack them open with a hammer on a good hard rock. Submitted by ROBERT cito on July 24, 2020 - 7:46pm. 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