From what we know now about content subject learning in a foreign language we understand that learners learn better and are more motivated than those in traditional content subject classrooms. The potential of CLIL in the classroom, Recommandations aux auteurs pour publier dans, Catalogue des 552 revues. Sa bibliographie compte environ 200 publications sur la linguistique appliquée (didactique), la psycholinguistique, l’éducation bilingue et l’usage des TIC dans l’enseignement et l’apprentissage des langues. To make this claim more transparent we have to look at another discipline, constructivism and constructivist psychology. 0000001436 00000 n Dieter Wolff, « Integrating language and content in the language classroom: Are transfer of knowledge and of language ensured? In a secondary classroom, they say, learners are exposed to the language six to seven hours a week instead of three to four hours in a normal language classroom: they make use of the foreign language more frequently and thus internalise it more quickly and more deeply. The main types of integration are: Backward vertical integration. You can also include lookups, which are reusable mappings for the different codes and terms used in your applications to describe the same item. Complex language is one of the defining factors that makes us human. Chapter 1. Language learning is seen as a by-product, it takes place because content (not input) is socially constructed. 0000008580 00000 n The first recommendation for a three-language policy was made by the University Education Commission in 1948–49, which did not find the requirement to study three languages to be an extravagance, citing the precedents of other multilingual nations such as Belgium and Switzerland. Progressive Functional Skill Integration. Integration is the act of bringing together smaller components into a single system that functions as one. It … 28But although the interactionist position as such presents a powerful theoretical claim it is yet limited in several respects: Conversational interaction has been analysed only in contexts involving native speakers and non-native speakers. But the question arises what effects this has on the acquisition of content? In colleges and universities, however, CLIL is only rarely used as a methodological approach to language and content teaching. ���T�8$���ڴ As I will show in a moment, comprehension involves other factors which can be helpful in understanding acquisition. Each integration includes connections and mappings. 0000004843 00000 n theories about language, the 1970s and 1980s ushered in humanistic approaches to language pedagogy in North America and in Europe. 39I mentioned above that interactionists attribute a certain degree of importance to comprehension in their theory: they maintain that input has to be comprehensible and they tacitly assume that comprehension is necessary in order to learn language. 0000002609 00000 n Content and Language Integrated Learning and Content-Based Instruction Content and language integrated learning (CLIL) is a methodology that enhances not only autonomy but also motivation (Dalton-Puffer, 2012;Grabbe & Stoller, 1997; Madrid & Madrid, 2014). So in constructivist theory it is not, like in SLA, simply meaningful input which is of importance for language processing, but input which is meaningful, but also significant and involving for the comprehender. Teachers also adapt authentic or other materials to the linguistic level of their students or write their own materials. As I just said, constructivists tell us that comprehension is a constructive process which necessitates a high amount of complex mental activities: comprehension is not a reactive and purely receptive process as proponents of earlier models of communication have made us believe. This is true even for the initiatives taken by university councils in Germany and similarly in France to offer entire university programmes in English in order to attract foreign students from other, especially Asian countries. Regional Integration in Africa Trudi Hartzenberg Trade Law Centre for Southern Africa (tralac) Manuscript date: October 2011 Disclaimer: This is a working paper, and hence it represents research in progress. The most important one is that CLIL must not simply be regarded as an approach to language teaching and learning but that it is concerned both with content and language. In Bredella, L. & F.J. Meißner (eds.). Math explained in easy language, plus puzzles, games, quizzes, worksheets and a forum. This is why exposure time can be higher for both learning components (language and content) than it could be if they were taught in isolation. Integration is a way of adding slices to find the whole. Learners can only comprehend and learn items which they can assimilate with knowledge already available. Then I will sketch out very briefly three approaches to content and language integrated learning, one focussing on primary, one on secondary and one on tertiary education. Globalization is manifested in the growth of world trade as a proportion of output (the ratio of world imports to gross world product, GWP, has grown from some 7% in 1938 to about 10% in 1970 to over 18% in 1996). Il est également vice-président de AILA, ex-président de GAAL (l’association allemande de linguistique appliquée) et consultant pour plusieurs agences nationales et internationales en charge d’harmoniser les politiques d’enseignement des langues. partners who co-operate in the learning process. Integration can be used to find areas, volumes, central points and many useful things. While English is clearly in the process of emerging to be a common world language, at least as a second language, minority languages are making something of a comeback, at least in developed countries. The result of this interaction process is an individual construct which the comprehender will store in his memory provided he judges it important enough. It is not wrong to say that language learning takes place whenever a learner engages in a constructive comprehension process. Other more formal types of interaction, for example academic discussions, or transactional interaction, have not been investigated at all. While doing this they have to activate their world and language knowledge stores, they have to infer meanings, they have to elaborate on what their interlocutor says. Learning is always socially mediated and necessitates a social context, i.e. (I would like to add a sixth one: multi-perspectivity, i.e. 0000006338 00000 n It is here that input or content comes in. 0000018291 00000 n 38All constructivists whether radical or more moderate emphasise that human cognition and human learning are constructive operations which the learner organises and carries out autonomously. In almost all countries the general principle underlying curriculum development is that learners having learnt content through the foreign language are expected to know as much about the content subject as learners in a mother-tongue course. 37All constructivist comprehension theories underline the importance of inputin the construction process. Tübingen: Gunter Narr, 43-83. 20I cannot go into more detail here with respect to the importance of a CLIL approach in the context of promoting language and content subject competence. It will then emphasize the need to crystallize this concept from an Islamic weltanschauung and concern all contributing factors and elements to achieve its ultimate aim. Language and integration in early primary school : A qualitative study where teachers in the early primary school discuss and reflect the concept and importance of language and integration based on the pupils development . Suffice it to say that the scant research which has already been done on CLIL has shown that both language and content subject learning benefit enormously from such a methodological set-up. In general, it can be estimated that in CLIL schools the age span of learners reaches from ten to twenty-one years. 0000002492 00000 n – Speech sounds as physical entities may be infinitely varied, but when they function as elements in a given language, as phonological units, they are highly constrained. », ASp, 41-42 | 2003, 35-46. Like comprehension interaction provides the ground for construction and thus opens the way for learning. Geography or history provide rich learning content for the classroom – content which is real and not fictitious and thus is more motivating than that usually dealt with in language classrooms. 0000092441 00000 n “Levels of processing: A framework for memory research”. « Integrating language and content in the language classroom: Are transfer of knowledge and of language ensured? 0000164087 00000 n Language Learning 44, 493-527. Language, like any other concept, has several definitions. for example Platt & Brooks 2002), it becomes clear that some of the earlier weaknesses of the approach have been recognised and are about to be mended. And how is this maintained? At least in the early stages of the interactionist theory the type of the content of the interaction does not play a role: whether a conversation is about everyday or academic matters does not seem to be of any interest in the explanation of the acquisitional process. », Portail de ressources électroniques en sciences humaines et sociales, 1. Supply chain integration occurs when multiple firms in a supply chain coordinate their activities and processes so that they are seamlessly linked to one another in the attempt to satisfy customers. Learning techniques and study skills are very complex abilities in language learning. 25Within SLA a number of different theoretical constructs have been developed which attempt to explain acquisitional processes both of natural and instructed language learners. This is, of course, due to the fact that people seem to view things from different perspectives. But this is not the intention of this approach, which is geared towards content learning as much as towards language learning. In language transmission this tends to be self-perpetuating unless deliberately interfered with. (2) Depth of processing has nothing to do with the frequency of rehearsing the item, it rather depends on the meaning which the comprehender extracts from the item. In the 14 primary CLIL schools in Berlin non-German children are chosen according to their first language and put together with an equal number of German speaking children, so that we have Turkish-German, Spanish-German or Greek-German classes. In my opinion neither the Universal Grammar nor the Monitor Model have enough explanatory power to make us understand why and in what way language learning takes place in a CLIL setting. The following topics describe each of the components required to create an end-to-end integration. 19“Why can CLIL be advantageous in tertiary professionally-oriented education and what are the broad educational advantages?” This question is asked by Marsh, Marsland & Stenberg (2001:17) in their book Integrating Competencies for Working Life and their answer is a list of five key reasons for introducing CLIL in an academic or professional curriculum. 0000170595 00000 n Input as such is not being discussed as a relevant factor in the acquisitional process. 0000015571 00000 n Much learning takes place through their interaction of language and experience (Ministry of Education, 2007). Language is God’s special gift to mankind. There are at least three different ways of understanding the concept of social integration. Le contenu doit être compris non seulement comme pouvant faire référence à un contexte quotidien ou même culturel spécifique mais aussi comme pouvant viser, à un niveau élevé, certains sujets enseignés au cours des études, depuis le cycle primaire jusqu’à l’enseignement supérieur ou dans un cadre professionnel. A professional qualification starts with a third or fourth language, and CLIL shows a way in this direction. 0000170182 00000 n Although CLIL has developed differently in different European school systems there are a number of  similarities which should be mentioned here in order to make the approach more transparent as an educational framework. Psychologically we can define integration as the process of developing and coordinating personality elements into balanced units, leading ultimately to a balanced whole. The foreign language is the medium of instruction, but it also becomes the content of instruction whenever learners have difficulties with it. Experimentation and research is more realistic, more motivating and more involving for the students because they deal with concrete topics from the field of geography or history and work, let us say, with temperature charts or historical maps. 44It is significance, motivation and involvement which are the driving forces activating comprehension and thus making language and content learning more efficient. It is clear that content subjects, with their rich potential for research and experimentation, add a new dimension to group work. The term CLIL is now the most commonly used, however, especially since a definition has been found which seems to be acceptable to everybody: Content and language integrated learning (CLIL) is a generic term and refers to any educational situation in which an additional language and therefore not the most widely used language of the environment is used for the teaching and learning of subjects other than the language itself. Already in 1972 Craik & Lockhart developed a model of human memory which is characterised by three important points: (1) Depth of processing of an item is an important concept with respect to retaining this item in memory. The process that usually is linked to the concept of unity and integration are: (a) Assimilation a two-way unity process that will result in groups with one culture, language and religion. To interact with a language means to do so with the culture which is its reference point. While every language has a different set of rules, all languages do obey rules. Recent research has made it clear that although foreign language proficiency is improved within CLIL even when the most traditional methodology imaginable is used, the content subject benefits as much from such an approach. 35In social constructivism, the locus of the process of construction and of comprehension is shifted from the inside, i.e. Language and integration in early primary school : A qualitative study where teachers in the early primary school discuss and reflect the concept and importance of language and integration based on the pupils development . 2001. 0000065467 00000 n In the following I will try to discuss some of my own assumptions which are embedded in Second Language Acquisition Research but more in Constructivist Learning Theory and pedagogy. This is documented, for example, by research on migrant workers who have often spent long periods of time in another country without having acquired even a rudimentary knowledge of the other language. 17Apart from Germany curricula developed by educational authorities do not exist. Constructivism and content and language integrated learning, 3.1. These initiatives were not very successful. The following statements are related to six key concepts of second-language acquisition. 18It is interesting to note that in tertiary education it is mainly vocational schools which have opted for teaching content through a foreign language. First, let me discuss the concept of integration because it leads to individuation. Finally, integration may involve the development of language while learning other content areas, such as social studies, science, or math, as in the "language-across- the-curriculum" model. And second, integrated content and language teaching saves time within the overall curriculum. Learners read academic texts, make notes about their content, present the results of their reading processes and listen to the teacher or other learners presenting their results. 0000176682 00000 n The perceptual stimuli which enter the processing space in a sensory mode (sound waves, letters) have to be transformed into something cognitive. Each factor is the … In a way, experimentation with language can be prepared through more realistic research in the content subject. This concept of communication is one of the foundations of SCT in language learning, which is one of the second language acquisition theory modules. Second language classroom implications. Conglomerate integration. The more languages our students know in their professional field the better they will be qualified for their profession. trailer The learning contents of most content subjects are, what could be called “realia”, i.e. We mean that the whole of the world is increasingly behaving as though it were a part of a single market, with interdependent production, consuming similar goods, and responding to the same impulses. Research and experimentation can also be carried out with language, of course, but a learning laboratory lends itself much more readily to investigation in social and natural sciences. It should be noted, however, that in the U. K. the strongly pragmatic goal-orientation in teaching the four skills and the impact of social factors on language usage continued to occupy a prominent place in ELT. 0000014000 00000 n Learners rapidly gain a true picture of the richness and complexity of the English language as employed for communication. This can be done through IT solutions that help to centralize cross-operational data or via other means, but regardless of how it’s ac… In a program using Spanish and English as languages of instruction, for example, lessons which incorporate English and math instruction for the Spanish speaker and science and Spanish for the English speaker provide both language and concept development. Many popular beliefs about second language acquisition are perpetuated in our society. Disciplines such as language, mathematics and science, nurture parts of each person. facts and processes of the real world, and thus appear much more relevant than the often pseudo-real contents of the language classroom. 16Materials for content and language integrated learning often come from the countries in which the language used for content teaching is the official language. 30It is interesting to note when looking at this research that there is a shift in focus: for the first time researchers are looking at the content of the interaction (it is still conversational interaction, but content is a controlled variable) and for the first time they come up with a non-linguistic argument in order to explain the language learning process – namely social construction of meaning. AccueilNuméros41-42ArticlesIntegrating language and content ... Cet article s’intéresse à la question du transfert dans une perspective pédagogique et psychologique. As I will show in a moment, however, interactionists can only partly explain what takes place in instructed second language learning of the CLIL type. Integrating language and content in the language classroom: Are transfer of knowledge and of language ensured? In an IT context, integration refers to the end result of a process that aims to stitch together different, often disparate, subsystems so that the data contained in each becomes part of a larger, more comprehensive system that, ideally, quickly and easily shares data when needed. They can also work together in language acquisition, and the phrase integrated skills is commonly used to describe curricula that develop the skills … This paper represents the opinions of the author, and is the product of professional research. This language teaching and learning concept which is related to similar concepts in secondary education (for example the ‘European schools’ model) turns out to be very efficient with respect to the language competence attained by the students; this is at least the outcome of a small number of research projects which are confirmed by what language teachers and school authorities tell us. (Lock, 1947, p. 65). Constructivists also try to integrate human emotion into their concept of construction. to be able to look at one’s own academic subject from different perspectives). Integrating reading, writing, and oral communication in language arts is a common example. 2 society related or brought about by the concept of „integrated Islamic curriculum‟. <]/Prev 427637>> Integration is defined as a process of developing a society in which all the social groups share the socioeconomic and cultural life. Researchers like Hatch (1992), Long (1983) and Pica (1994) argue that what Krashen (1982) calls comprehensible input is necessary for language learning, but that in order to understand the effect interaction has on the learning process the question must be answered how input is made comprehensible. a retailer buys a wholesaler, a brewer buys a hop farm. You can also include lookups, which are reusable mappings for the different codes and terms used in your applications to describe the same item. In general, teachers use both authentic and textbook materials (the latter from the content subject textbooks available in these countries). The key to an understanding of language learning within a CLIL setting seems to me to lie in the kind of input, in the nature of the comprehension process and in the way interaction takes place. Later on, in the development of the theory, a more far-reaching argument was added. 2The approach is based on the well-known assumption that foreign languages are best learnt by focussing in the classroom not so much on language – its form and structure – but on the content through which language is transmitted. They assume that language learning takes place while learners interact in the target language when engaging in a task which they have to solve. Learners learn language and content in the CLIL classroom more successfully because they are more involved in content. – Native speakers of any language intuitively know which sequences of speech sounds 0000014779 00000 n Content and language integrated learning (CLIL) is a generic term and refers to any educational situation in which an additional language and therefore not the most widely used language of the environment is used for the teaching and learning of subjects other than the language itself. 0000003127 00000 n 9The second point is equally important: within a CLIL framework content and language are learnt in integration. But the question takes on a different quality if content is defined as something more complex than what is usually introduced into the traditional language classroom. It tries: rst, to observe languages and to describe them accurately, then, to nd generalizations within what has been described, les travaux d’Harold Palmer au début du siècle dernier et ce qui existe déjà dans de nombreuses écoles en Europe), est réalisable et efficace en termes d’économie de temps, en termes d’acquisition de la langue cible et des contenus, et si elle a des répercussions sur la nature même des contenus abordés et des pratiques linguistiques choisies. Research laboratory, occasions for group work content subjects are discuss the concept of language integration in the CLIL classroom acquiring a business operating in. Interaction also plays an important role in the development of, Quality of learning and teaching has a. Appear much more relevant than the often pseudo-real contents of most content subjects are, what and. In today language teaching ” intercultural learning takes place ( Christ 2000 ) look like brought about by the or. 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Research in the supply chain integrationis the process of creating cohesion and increasing throughout...