The PostgreSQL MAX function returns the maximum value, specified by expression in a set of aggregated rows. Today’s post is going to cover how to implement this solution using Pl/pgSQL. Double precision values are treated as floating point values in PostgreSQL. To rename a column of a table, you use the ALTER TABLE statement with RENAME COLUMN clause as follows: First, specify the name of the table that contains the column which you want to rename after the ALTER TABLE clause. The Kate Joel was matched to one of the table's records, and its details were returned. Create a new table named products with the below commands: Now insert some products with the prices whose scales exceed the scale declared in the price column: As the scale of the price column is 2, PostgreSQL rounds the value 100.2157 up to 100.22 and rounds the value 300.2149 down to 300.21 Let us see different examples to understand how the PostgreSQL Numeric data type works. Now we have used the SELECT command to fetch all the records from the Items table: After executing the above statement, we will get the below result: Generally, the NaN is not equal to any number, including itself, which means that the following expression NaN = NaN will return FALSE. memory = cursor. Moreover, you can also have different names for your property and the corresponding column. If we want to display the employee_id, first name and 1st 4 characters of first_name for those employees who belong to the department which department_id is below 50 from … Any column except time and metric are treated as a value column. In this number, the precision is 6, and the scale is 2. You may return a column named metric that is used as metric name for the value column. Please write to us at contribute@geeksforgeeks.org to report any issue with the above content. PostgreSQL includes JSON operators, can index jsonb columns, test whether jsonb objects contain other jsonb objects, and can transform values to data types used in different languages. © Copyright 2011-2018 www.javatpoint.com. Scale: Number of digits in terms of a fraction. – Craig Ringer Sep 30 '14 at 14:57 To categorize the Items based on their Item_prices, we will use the below command: On executing the above command, we will get the following output: As we can see in the above screenshot that the NaN is greater than the value 300.51. The below syntax displays the Numeric data type with Scale ZERO: And if we ignore both precision and scale, we can have any precision and scale up to the limit of the precision and scale, which mentioned above. Mail us on hr@javatpoint.com, to get more information about given services. Let see on sample example of PostgreSQL Numeric data type and NaN. You can access the column names using index. The below query returns all rows of the products table: Example 2: For instance, you can replace a entire column by the word 'CONFIDENTIAL' likethis: In the example, by specifying the column name, the property name will be mapped to the customer_name column. Column names can contain any valid characters (for example, spaces). If column names contain any characters except letters, numbers, and underscores, the name must be delimited by enclosing it in back quotes (`). This is to avoid data precision loss since Numeric types in postgres cannot be safely converted to JavaScript Number. Now, let us see how we can use the IN operator with numeric values. PostgreSQL uses a single data type to define all object names: the name type. The LOWER() function allows users to convert strings to all lower case for evaluation purposes (there is also a similar UPPER() function). We can use any of the string to split it, we can also use a column name as a substring to split the data from column. Query select table_schema, table_name, ordinal_position as position, column_name, data_type, case when character_maximum_length is not null then character_maximum_length else numeric_precision end as max_length, is_nullable, column_default as default_value from information_schema.columns where table_schema not in ('information_schema', … But, the two NaN values can be equivalent, and NaN is more significant than other numbers. Examples of PostgreSQL Numeric data types. All rights reserved. In PostgreSQL, the Numeric data type is used to store the numbers with various significant numbers of digits. The NUMERIC value can have up to 131, 072 digits before the decimal point of 16, 383 digits after the decimal point. If so, you have to do that outside the dynamic SQL string, in the format argument list. The below query returns all rows of the products table: If you like GeeksforGeeks and would like to contribute, you can also write an article using contribute.geeksforgeeks.org or mail your article to contribute@geeksforgeeks.org. Create a new table named products with the below commands: As the scale of the price column is 2, PostgreSQL rounds the value 57896.2277 up to 57896.22 for Raju, the value 84561.3657 down to 84561.36 for Abhishek, the value 55100.11957 to 55100.12 for Nikhil and the value 49300.21425849 to 49300.21 for Ravi. Query select table_schema, table_name, ordinal_position as position, column_name, data_type, case when character_maximum_length is not null then character_maximum_length else numeric_precision end as max_length, is_nullable, column_default as default_value from information_schema.columns where table_schema not in ('information_schema', … Where column name means specific column name in the created table and float means float data type. For example: When we are specifying the table's structure using the CREATE TABLE command, we can generally use the CHECK constraint.. SERIAL data type allows you to automatically generate unique integer numbers (IDs, identity, auto-increment, sequence) for a column. PostgreSQL (/ ˈ p oʊ s t ɡ r ɛ s ˌ k juː ˈ ɛ l /), also known as Postgres, is a free and open-source relational database management system (RDBMS) emphasizing extensibility and SQL compliance.It was originally named POSTGRES, referring to its origins as a successor to the Ingres database developed at the University of California, Berkeley. PostgreSQL treats the scope of a table or column constraint name as being the table it belongs to. Nomenclature — no change in column names from existing schema. The new-column-name is … In this article, we will discuss the step by step process of changing the data type of a column using the ALTER TABLE statement in PostgreSQL.. Syntax: ALTER TABLE table_name ALTER COLUMN column_name [SET DATA] TYPE new_data_type; Let’s analyze the above syntax: First, specify the name of the table to which the column you want to change belongs in the ALTER TABLE clause. Syntax: COUNT (* | [DISTINCT] ALL | column_name) Parameters We are going to create Items tables by using the CREATE command into the Organization database: The Items table has been successfully created after executing the above commands, as shown in the below screenshot: Once the Items table has been generated, we are ready to insert some items into it by using the INSERT command with their prices whose scales exceed the scale declared in the item_price column: After implementing the above command, we will get the following output, which displays that the value has been inserted successfully into the Items table. PostgreSQL supports the NUMERIC type for storing numbers with a very large number of digits.Generally NUMERIC type are used for the monetary or amounts storage where precision is required.. Syntax: NUMERIC(precision, scale) Where, Precision: Total number of digits. In the below example, we create a new table called Worker, which contains multiple columns, such as Worker_ID, Worker_name, DOB, Joining_date, … The spec requires that such names be unique over the whole schema. The alias is displayed when the query returns the table’s records: If we don't require the precision, we cannot use the Numeric data type since the calculations on Numeric values are usually slower than double precisions, floats, and integers. The PostgreSQL will round the value to a defined number of fractional digits if we want to store a value more extensive than the declared scale of the Numeric column. Suppose, we developed an ETL tool that inserting records on a daily basis in the PostgreSQL table from the CSV file. Sometimes we need to remove special characters from string or columns value. The article explained how to install the pg module for the Node.js PostgreSQL client, use a Node Promise object to connect to Postgres, execute an SQL query statement to get the PostgreSQL column names, parse the result object returned by Postgres and how to iterate through the PostgreSQL table’s column … You can use the following code examples in PostgreSQL if you have a month number but you want the month name instead. The PostgreSQL DOUBLE PRECISION type is a numeric data type; it’s also known by the alternate name float8. This table is pretty simple. Example 1: Print DataFrame Column Names. In this article, we will see how to change column datatype in PostgreSQL. Consider the Price table given below: Price: So the number 23.5141 has a precision of 6 and a scale of 4. Unfortunately, the only way to query that column in PostgreSQL, is using "FirstName" (including the quotes). PostgreSQL SUBSTRING() function using Column : Sample Table: employees. Query below lists all table columns in a database. Modify the table. There are a number of DDL statements you will need to work with PostgreSQL, such as creating, dropping, and working with a database. COLUMN ALIASES are used to make column headings in your result set easier to read. Generally NUMERIC type are used for the monetary or amounts storage where precision is required. The PostgreSQL will round the value to a defined number of fractional digits if we want to store a value more extensive than the declared scale of the Numeric column. We are searching for whether we can find any of these names in the name column of the Employees table. The use of table aliases means to rename a table in a particular PostgreSQL statement. stores whole numbers use this when you want to store typical integers. Example 1: PostgreSQL Approximate Number Types SQL Name PostgreSQL Alternative Name Notes numeric (precision, scale) Stores an exact number to the precision specified. For details, see the corresponding driver issue. It is allowed to have a zero or positive scale, as the syntax defined below for a NUMERIC column with the scale of zero: If you eliminate both precision and scale, there is no limit to the precision or the scale and the syntax will be as below: The NUMERIC and DECIMAL types are equivalent in PostgreSQL and upto the SQL standard. Renaming is a temporary change and the actual table name does not change in the database. The Numeric data types contain the following: The below table contains all Numeric data types that support in PostgreSQL: The syntax of the PostgreSQL Numeric data type is as follows: In the above syntax, we have used the following parameters: We can understand the concept of precision and scale by seeing in the following example: Suppose we have the number 2356.78. Here’s a basic example of converting a month number to its corresponding month name. Let us see different examples to understand how the PostgreSQL Numeric data type works. It is a keyword, which is used to store the numeric numbers. Max columns per row Max Blob/Clob size Max CHAR size Max NUMBER size Min DATE value Max DATE value Max column name size Pervasive PSQL: 4 billion objects 256 GB 2 GB 1,536 2 GB 8,000 bytes 64 bits 01-01-0001 12-31-9999 128 bytes Polyhedra: Limited by available RAM, address space 2 32 rows Unlimited 65,536 4 GB (subject to RAM) 2. PostgreSQL is case sensitive for evaluating strings. In this example, we get the dataframe column names and print them. A name must start with a letter or an underscore; the rest of … In the PostgreSQL Numeric data type section, we have learned the following topics: JavaTpoint offers too many high quality services. A pseudo-type cannot be used as a column data type, but it can be used to declare a function's argument or result type. It returns an object. Typecast character column to numeric in pandas python using apply(): Method 3. apply() function takes “int” as argument and converts character column (is_promoted) to numeric column as shown below. Integers can be considered to have a scale of zero. The table given below lists the existing pseudo-types. For example, you can have a variable that contains all values for the hostname column in a table if you specify a query like this in the templating variable Query setting. With Numeric. Let us see different examples to understand how the PostgreSQL Numeric data type works. The NUMERIC value can have up to 131, 072 digits before the decimal … Two scenarios are there: 1. Please Improve this article if you find anything incorrect by clicking on the "Improve Article" button below. Duration: 1 week to 2 week. The serial data type is used to automatically generate the next ID in the sequence if an ID is not specified. The array contains the name of all the columns for which we want Z-scores. Every table has a name, every column has a name, and so on. cursor. execute ('SHOW work_mem') # Call fetchone - which will fetch the first row returned from the # database. The PostgreSQL type system contains a number of special-purpose entries that are collectively called pseudo-types. If you store a value with a scale greater than the declared scale of the NUMERIC column, PostgreSQL will round the value to a specified number of … Both the maximum precision and the maximum scale of a numeric column … If you return multiple value columns and a column named metric then this column is used as prefix for the series name … It includes columns to store the parent's first name, last name, and phone number. You can then optionally specify a constraint, such as NOT NULL. PostgreSQL uses a single data type to define all object names: the name type. Table structure is nothing but to get the list of columns, datatypes and constrains information. If you're coming from SQL Server, PostgreSQL can seem very pedantic about column names. Using the above query we can create a function with schema and table name parameter, one thing also I want to improve like I want to top one value of a column for the data illustration, basically, we use it in a data-dictionary. In the below example, we will update the item_price of the item_id 1 to NaN: Once we implement the above command, we will get the below message window, which displays that the particular value has been updated successfully into the Items table. First of all, the fastest and safest way to anonymize a data is to destroy it:-) In many case, the best approach to hide the content of a column is to replaceall values with a single static value. The syntax to rename a column in a table in PostgreSQL (using the ALTER TABLE statement) is: ALTER TABLE table_name RENAME COLUMN old_name TO new_name; table_name It also specifies an ID column that uses the PRIMARY KEY constraint. Let’s take some example of using the PostgreSQL NUMERIC type. Some years ago, when PostgreSQL version 8.3 was released, a new extension called tablefunc was introduced. Numeric in PostgreSQL are columns with the following data types: smallint, integer, bigint, decimal, numeric, real, double precision, smallserial, serial, bigserial, money. PostgreSQL NUMERIC examples. Every table has a name, every column has a name, and so on. String Query below lists all table columns in a database. Examples of PostgreSQL Numeric data types. Experience. This function accepts an expression including any numeric, string, date, or time data type values and returns the maximum as a value of the same data type as specified in the expression . And we also see examples of Numeric data type. We can change the data type of a column by using the ALTER TABLE statement. For PostgreSQL, you need to add the word COLUMN. PostgreSQL ALIASES can be used to create a temporary name for columns or tables. Finally, after listing all the available columns inside the table, just execute the following command for renaming the corresponding column : postgres=# ALTER TABLE user rename user_id to id; ALTER TABLE postgres=# 6. To add a new column to a PostgreSQL table, the ALTER TABLE command is used with the following syntax: ALTER TABLE table-name ADD new-column-name column-definition; The table-name is the name of the table to be modified. Which table needs to be operated explicitly In this article, we are going to see How to get the PostgreSQL table structure. That's what we'll cover in this article. postgresql: \d+ table postgresql: SELECT column_name FROM information_schema.columns WHERE table_name ='table'; If there are any other equivalent commands you’d like to learn for Postgres which we’ve missed above, feel free to let us know in the comments section and we’ll get them added. Syntax: MAX (* | [DISTINCT] ALL | column_name) Please mail your requirement at hr@javatpoint.com. Then you specify the new column name where it says “column_name” You then specify a data type for this column, which must be one of the data types available in your database. A value of type name is a string of 63 or fewer characters. PostgreSQL DDL Statements. See your article appearing on the GeeksforGeeks main page and help other Geeks. Example of Storing numeric values. The query below lists all columns with numeric data types. By default, PostgreSQL converts table and column names to lowercase, unless those names are placed in … acknowledge that you have read and understood our, GATE CS Original Papers and Official Keys, ISRO CS Original Papers and Official Keys, ISRO CS Syllabus for Scientist/Engineer Exam, PostgreSQL - Create Auto-increment Column using SERIAL, Creating a REST API Backend using Node.js, Express and Postgres, PostgreSQL - Connect To PostgreSQL Database Server in Python, PostgreSQL - Introduction to Stored Procedures, Write Interview In SQL Server, case sensitivity doesn't matter for column names, so if a column is named FirstName, then firstName, firstname, or even FIRSTNAME are all valid. It may be the possibility of junk data insertion in the table, for these types of issue we have to remove the special characters from the columns. One of them is the crosstab function, which is used for pivot table creation. Example. They will write data to new columns in the same table. 3. numeric or numeric (p,s): Explanation. Example 1: Full Month Name. Split_part (): PostgreSQL split_part function is used to split string into specified delimiter and return into result as nth substring, the splitting of string is based on a … Using quotes like this can get tiresome, so it's a common convention to use "snake_case" for columns and tables; that is, all-lowercase with _ to separat… Change column datatype of table without data. The scale of a numeric is the count of decimal digits in the fractional part, to the right of the decimal point. The next parameter is going to be the prefix for the new calculated column name. The sequence in PostgreSQL is a special kind of object which is used to generate numeric identifiers. DataFrame.columns. This can be done either by excluding the column from the list of columns in the INSERT statement, or through the use of the DEFAULT key word. Please use ide.geeksforgeeks.org, generate link and share the link here. In our last blog post on using Postgres for statistics, I covered some of the decisions on how to handle calculated columns in PostgreSQL. How to get a list column names and data-type of a table in PostgreSQL?, How do I list all columns for a specified table?, information_schema.columns, Using pg_catalog.pg_attribute, get the list of columns, Get the list of columns and its details using information_schema.columns, Get the column details of a table, Get The Column Names From A PostgreSQL Table We have a list of three names. If we want to fetch the numeric values, then the PostgreSQL NUMERIC data type can also have a special value called NaN, and the NaN stand for not-a-number. 01/19/2017; 2 minutes to read; D; M; r; c; C; In this article. Let's look at an example that shows how to add a column in a PostgreSQL table using the ALTER TABLE statement. PostgreSQL Create Table Exercises: Write a SQL statement to create a table employees, including employee_id, first_name, last_name, email, phone_number hire_date, job_id, salary, commission, manager_id and department_id and make sure that, the employee_id column did not contain any duplicate values at the time of insertion and the foreign key columns combined by department_id and … Finally, we need the name of the primary key column for one of the queries used in the function. In the example, by specifying the column name, the property name will be mapped to the customer_name column. PostgreSQL's behavior here severely limits the usefulness of several information_schema views, which are defined on the assumption of schema-wide constraint name uniqueness. PostgreSQL change column … El tamaño de bytes. The following example creates an alias for a column name using AS. This execution allows PostgreSQL to categorize the Numeric values and use them in tree-based indexes. Parece que tiene sus columnas year y week_of_month definidas como numeric(17,17), lo que significa 17 dígitos, 17 de los cuales están detrás del punto decimal.Entonces, el valor debe estar entre 0 y 1. The user guide states there is no limit to the precision that may be specified. The PostgreSQL SELECT AS clause allows you to assign an alias, or temporary name, to either a column or a table in a query. The PostgreSQL will round the value to a defined number of fractional digits if we want to store a value more extensive than the declared scale of the Numeric column. Here, we also use the drop command to drop the table if it exists in a particular database. If you add a template variable of the type Query, you can write a PostgreSQL query that can return things like measurement names, key names or key values that are shown as a dropdown select box. The next parameter is an array of text values (which is a data type in PostgreSQL). You can access the column names of DataFrame using columns property. Change column datatype of table with data. If a column is a type numeric, float or similar, and all values are whole numbers, like 1, 2, 3, … the result of a division between this column and another column will not be an integer division but a floating point division: Example with a table In this section, we are going to understand the working of PostgreSQL Numeric data types, which allows us to store the numeric data. A value of type name is a string of 63 or fewer characters 1. SELECT TO_CHAR( TO_DATE (12::text, 'MM'), 'Month' ) AS "Month Name"; Result: Month Name ----- December Various significant numbers of digits in terms of the primary key constraint you create object! New_Column_Name the name of the fraction part, Advance Java, Advance Java,.Net Android! Information about given services whole schema name is a special kind of object which is to! Them in tree-based indexes are equivalent: both create integer columns the precision is required using as clicking the! Is going to be the prefix for the monetary or amounts storage precision. To ensure you have to do that outside the dynamic SQL string, the! But not identical to auto postgresql numeric column name in MySQL table command, we see. Postgresql can seem very pedantic about column names can contain any valid (... Null, use the column names from existing schema specific column from a or! Primary key column for one of the primary key in PostgreSQL, you give that object a,! Craig Ringer Sep 30 '14 at 14:57 any column except time and metric are treated a... Names in the source system ) will exist as they did in the format list! Month number to its corresponding month name, el número entero tiene 4 bytes, bigint - bytes! Customer_Name column syntax general ] ALTER table statement, i.e datatypes and constrains.! Where precision is 6, and phone number decimal point of 16, 383 after. A 4-byte, single-precision, floating-point number the numbers with a very large number digits! Link and share the link here here ’ s also known by the alternate name float8 a... Maximum value, specified by expression in a particular database we want Z-scores value column have a scale the... 6 and a scale of a column in PostgreSQL is a special kind of object which is used make... Key in PostgreSQL how we can find any of these names in the function which is used for pivot creation! Use ide.geeksforgeeks.org, generate link and share the link here than other numbers using:! Columns, delete columns in postgres can not be safely converted to JavaScript number tree-based.! You 're coming from SQL Server, PostgreSQL converts table and inserting the calculated values these! A keyword, which is a data type works records on a daily basis in the,! Javatpoint.Com, to get more information about given services characters from string or columns value same table inserting. Type for storing numbers with a very large number of digits sample example of converting a month postgresql numeric column name its... Type and NaN GeeksforGeeks main page and help other Geeks how the PostgreSQL table structure to make column in! Will exist as they did in the PostgreSQL MAX function returns the value! See examples of PostgreSQL CHECK constraint 's working, we have learned the example... The user guide states there is no limit to the precision is required issue with the above.... Usar un tipo de entero the actual table name does not change in column names to lowercase unless... New columns PHP, Web Technology and Python column for one of scope... ; it ’ s a basic example of converting a month number to its corresponding month name the table... Supports almost all of the scope of a fraction not null ( 'SHOW work_mem ' ) # Call -. The example, by specifying the column that uses the primary key in PostgreSQL is! The maximum precision and the maximum scale of 4 digits in terms of a numeric column … a. Next parameter is an array of text values ( which is used with COUNT the! Table structure is nothing but to get the list of columns, datatypes and constrains.. To one of the Employees table and help other Geeks of 6 and a scale of fraction... Valid characters ( for example, by specifying the column names of DataFrame columns. The property name will be mapped to the table it belongs to also known by alternate... Coalesce the column name in the format argument list postgres can not be safely to... Ago, when PostgreSQL version 8.3 was released, a new extension called tablefunc was introduced:! A table or column constraint name as being the table 's structure using create. Name means specific column from a table in a database is a keyword, which is used to the. A column name using as name in the database at an example that shows to. Is going to see how to get more information about given services Employees... On sample example of PostgreSQL numeric data type to define all object names: the name of the! The assumption of schema-wide constraint name postgresql numeric column name being the table it belongs to t required! Including the quotes ): sample table: Employees of a fraction store typical integers are used the. Using the ALTER table table_name drop constraint “ some_name ” ; Notes: 1 values and use in! The quotes ) want Z-scores the data type to define all object names: the name of the item_price is... You may return a column by using the PostgreSQL ROW_NUMBER ( ) set... The following example creates an alias for a column in a database PostgreSQL table structure is nothing but to the! The below example values and use them in tree-based indexes to remove special characters from string or value... Tree-Based indexes which are defined on the GeeksforGeeks main page and help other.. By default, PostgreSQL can postgresql numeric column name very pedantic about column names can contain valid. For PostgreSQL, the property name will be mapped to the customer_name column rename a table in a table. Corresponding column table statement the function the command for listing the available columns inside the database new.... For your property and the actual table name does not change in the database ) is with... Type are used to generate numeric identifiers of these names in the database have up to 131, digits... Number to its corresponding month name Price table given below: Price: PostgreSQL SUBSTRING ( ) function using:... By expression in a particular database columns or tables and phone number numeric numbers only way to that... Training on Core Java, Advance Java, Advance Java, Advance Java,.Net, Android,,! Precision of 6 and a scale of a column name, i.e this extension provides a really interesting set aggregated... Two NaN values can be used to generate an artificial primary key column for of! The customer_name column to us at contribute @ geeksforgeeks.org to report any with! That outside the dynamic SQL string, in the source system ) will exist as they did in the numeric! Trying to coalesce the column name means specific column from a table or column name. Be covered in a database button below the scale of the table, a new column to the! A keyword, which are defined on the GeeksforGeeks main page and help other Geeks type. Table creation have up to 16383 digits after the decimal … examples of data. Table structure is nothing but to get the PostgreSQL table using the ALTER table table_name drop “... Numeric or numeric ( 17,0 ), o tal vez debería usar un tipo entero. More significant than other numbers take some example of using the PostgreSQL table the... Postgresql CHECK constraint to avoid data precision loss since numeric types in postgres not. Supports almost all of the postgresql numeric column name of a fraction the table it belongs to see your article appearing on GeeksforGeeks! Sep 30 '14 at 14:57 any column except time and metric are treated as a value of type is. Particular database how the PostgreSQL ROW_NUMBER ( ) divides set of aggregated rows make headings. Php, Web Technology and Python integers can be equivalent, and details... Command, we need to remove special characters from string or columns value type of a.... Article if you 're coming from SQL Server, PostgreSQL can seem very pedantic about column names from schema! Smaller sets to 131, 072 digits before the decimal point ; to! Details were returned from postgresql numeric column name CSV file ): Explanation 8.3 was released, a new column s a example! Any issue with the above content JavaScript number: JavaTpoint offers too many high quality.! Us see different examples to understand how the PostgreSQL numeric type for storing numbers with a very large of! To one of them is postgresql numeric column name crosstab function, which is used to store typical integers trying coalesce! Shows how to implement this solution using postgresql numeric column name of numeric data type to all... Access the column name means specific column from a table or column constraint uniqueness... 16, 383 digits after the rename column keywords ) is used for the new calculated name. Of digits a keyword, which is used to automatically generate the next parameter going... Go with Adding extra columns to postgresql numeric column name typical integers PostgreSQL CHECK constraint 's working, are... Whole schema function, which are defined on the GeeksforGeeks main page help! Type section, we have learned the following example creates an alias for a in. We also see examples of PostgreSQL CHECK constraint 's working, we also use drop... Columns, delete columns let ’ s a basic example of PostgreSQL CHECK constraint 's,... Interesting set of rows into partitions or smaller sets at 14:57 any column except time and are. A scale of 4 Hadoop, PHP, Web Technology and Python calculated column name and. College campus training on Core Java,.Net, Android, Hadoop, PHP, Web Technology and.. They create a bigint column tipo de entero generally use the CHECK constraint 01/19/2017 ; 2 to...