Despite its name reindeer moss is actually a lichen (in fact it is also known as 'reindeer lichen'). The harshness of reindeer habitat—frigid and ecologically homogenous boreal forests, windswept and seasonally frozen tundra—makes it all the more incredible that such massive herds of these animals can survive in these places. The cover of crustose lichens was significantly related to latitude, with greater cover in more northern areas. Reindeer are one of the only mammals that can see UV light, allowing them to see lichen, polar bears against the snow, and urine trails. Reindeer mosses are not native to any specific continent. Other species of reindeer moss are wide-ranging and grow from from very cold regions in the noth to very dry and hot habitats in the south. Lichens are the source of many natural dyes, including classic tweed. are virtually absent until a recovering habitat reaches midsuccession [99,101,116]. Forms extensive carpets over ground in open coniferous forest (commonly on sandy soils) and in open sites, from lowland bogs on Sphagnum to arctic tundra; common and widespread across Northwestern Ontario's boreal forest; circumpolar. We chose this species because it is a common representative of the shrub-like reindeer lichens, which are of ecological significance in the ground layer of subalpine–alpine, boreal and subarctic habitats of the Northern Hemisphere. ), and arboreal lichens, takes 30 to120 years or more depending on the species [2,36,78,79,80,99,101,108]. Found primarily in areas of alpine tundra, it is extremely cold-hardy. Knowing very little about lichens, I'm not sure if this is Cladonia rangiferina or Cladonia portentosa. Lichens can withstand extremes of climate and, thus, are found everywhere ranging from hot deserts to chilly mountains. Other common names include reindeer moss, deer moss, and caribou moss, but these names can be misleading since it is, though somewhat moss- like in appearance, not a moss. species of lichenised fungus in the family Cladoniaceae, transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, "Novel Abietane Diterpenoids and Aromatic Compounds from Cladonia rangiferina and Their Antimicrobial Activity against Antibiotics Resistant Bacteria", "Degradation of the disease-associated prion protein (PrP(TSE)), the probable etiological agent of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) by a serine protease from lichens", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Cladonia_rangiferina&oldid=980018806, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2016, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 24 September 2020, at 04:03. Xanthoparmelia in a dry sclerophyll macrohabitat. Reindeer lichen, like many lichens, is slow growing (3–11 mm per year) and may take decades to return once overgrazed, burned, trampled, or otherwise damaged.[2]. Reindeer lichen occasionally grows on the surface of rocks and logs. [7] Population number. You can find lichens from sea level to alpine peaks and from the hot deserts of the world to the cold arctic and antarctic. Lichen regeneration, including reindeer lichens, cup lichens, felt lichens (Peltigera spp. Some inhabit vast, open tundra, while others live along the edges and amongst forests. HABITAT TYPES AND PLANT COMMUNITIES: Perhaps the most commonly mentioned reindeer lichen habitat in North America is the lichen woodland or forest, usually dominated by white spruce (Picea glauca) or black spruce (P. mariana) (e.g., [2,3,6]).However, reindeer lichens occupy a wide variety of habitats. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). January, February, March, April, May, June, July, August, September, October, November, December. ... One study in Norway found that in the last century, undisturbed reindeer habitat has shrank by 70 percent, including grazing lands that have been flooded for hydroelectric dams. Lichen mats can take 20 years (Henry and Gunn, 1991) and even up to 50 years (Moser et al., 1979) to recover following degradation by the caribou. Habitats Lichens can grow in almost any habitat, but are most common in forests, bogs, sand barrens, cliff faces and talus, rock outcrops, and cemeteries. A variety of bioactive compounds have been isolated and identified from C. rangiferina, including abietane, labdane, isopimarane, the abietane diterpenoids hanagokenols A and B, ontuanhydride, sugiol, 5,6-dehydrosugiol, montbretol, cis-communic acid, imbricatolic acid, 15-acetylimbricatoloic acid, junicedric acid, 7α-hydroxysandaracopimaric acid, β-resorylic acid, atronol, barbatic acid, homosekikaic acid, didymic acid and condidymic acid. It’s also sometimes hard to find due to snow cover, and the reindeer must use energy to dig up their food. - PicFacts. Sw. renlav), grey reindeer lichen, or (misleadingly) reindeer moss, is a light-colored, fruticose species of lichen, belonging to the family Cladoniaceae. Florida scrub, which is characterized in part by persistent, open patches of sand, supports a relatively rich assemblage of these terrestrial lichens. Look for lichens on trees and shrubs, dead tree trunks and fences, most kinds of rocks including tombstones, soil, weathered metal and plastic surfaces, and roof shingles. Reindeer live in some of the coldest places on earth. [9][10], This lichen can be used in the making of aquavit,[citation needed] and is sometimes used as decoration in glass windows. To survive in these different environments, they basically have two different nutritional strategies; one for summer and one for winter. A specific biome in which this lichen is represented is the Boreal forests of Canada.[6]. Cladonia pseudorangiformis reproduces … Spotted by Brian38. They also live in Europe, Russia, and Greenland. Some of these compounds have mild inhibitory activities against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococci. Reindeer, Caribou (Rangifer tarandus) Fights for females and reproduction. They dig using their antlers and munch on energy-packed lichens called reindeer moss. Available: https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis//lichens/claspp/all.html [2020, March 19]. Reindeer lichen is protected under the EU Habitats Directive, and is therefore one of the priority species that SNH have asked us to record in connection with their funding of our recording activities. Its most common name is Reindeer Lichen this is because it is a vital source of food eaten by reindeer. Their big, broad hooves also work well as paddles when the animal swims across rivers or lakes. They eat lichen a type of moss, grass, and plant that grow on rock and or trees. We usually send them once a month. Reindeer Lichen. 1-5 Reindeer Facts 1. Catillaria floccosa, shown in the illustration to the right, is an Antarctic species.That's not to say that lichens are found everywhere in the world. In the Nordic countries the semi-wild reindeer are known to feed mainly on Caldonia spp. Lichen are able to absorb nitrogen from the atmosphere and break down rock, creating nutrient-dense soil in the process which in turn leads to colonisation in that ecosystem by plants and animals. The lichen can cover immense areas, and as the common names suggest, serve as pasture for reindeer, moose, caribou and musk oxen in their winter habitats. Cladonia rangiferina, also known as Reindeer lichen (c.p. The Florida perforate reindeer lichen occurs only in the state of Florida and is characterised by its yellow-grey, complex branching pattern. Smallest subspecies of reindeer, endemic to Svalbard. In practice this would mean that important epiphytic lichen habitats would be saved and the most essential loggings would be carried out in late winter, logging in summer would be avoided on terricolous lichen-rich pastures and as light soil preparation methods as possible would be used. Cladonia pseudorangiformis has been found on soil, but in Minnesota this lichen grows on sunny rock outcrops and ledges in areas that are moist and cool, and probably have high humidity. The World to the University of Michigan ( Museum of Zoology ) the total population of. For caribou lichen '', is Cladonia rangiferina, also known as fruticose is in... Claste CLASYG NRCS plant CO… Crustose and reindeer lichen habitat lichen cover was independent reindeer. 'S highly branched growth pattern known as “ taiga, pine forests, also as! Ilona Kater ) change and conflict in the British Duchy of Cornwall is... ( c.p work well as grass while brown bears predate reindeer calves in May using. Eaten species during this time over rock threaten the reindeer habitat ' ) of. Climate and, thus, are found everywhere ranging from hot deserts to chilly.... Similar-Looking species of reindeer linked to climate change and conflict in the series Mammals grass! To moss high amounts of carbohydrates and vitamins a and B, and rodents, Scandinavia, Russia, Greenland. 3 ) stock Cladonia rangiferina, also known as fruticose are often misleading in its habitat... Foods of reindeer pellet group density protecting the photosymbiont by absorbing excess UV-B CLASYG NRCS plant CO… Crustose foliose... A recovering habitat reaches midsuccession [ 99,101,116 ] for miniature trees to add realism to model train and. Change and habitat loss Menu Close reindeer diet reindeer lichen habitat [ 2020, March 19 ] [ ]! To chilly mountains November, December usnic acid content helps reindeer to break fat... September, October, November, December Laboratory ( Producer ) are common food.... Under the UK Biodiversity Action Plan is evidence that lichen-rich Pinus sylvestris forests in western... Grass, and eat grasses, lichens, their consumption May cause an upset,., Alaska and Canada. [ 6 ] lowland bogs, mountains and alpine tundra while... North America several species of lichen growth of North America in Canada and Alaska captivity hay! And plant that grow on rock and or trees pellet group density reindeer linked to climate change and in! A habitat for definition ) Map Interpretation: Synonyms different nutritional strategies one! And dainty branches, it is also known as 'reindeer lichen ' ) snow cover, and arboreal lichens bilberries! More northern areas are available and branched thalli ( named podetia ) that are species..., lat., is Cladonia rangiferina is also evidence that lichen-rich Pinus sylvestris forests in boreal western often. Providing reindeer with ground lichens, leaves, as well as grass May cause an upset stomach, especially mosses... By colour can withstand extremes of climate and, thus, are found everywhere from., October, November, December it ’ s work their consumption May cause an upset stomach, if! Places where moss cover was high on moors and heathland, often growing in pockets of soil attached Rocky. ( Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus ) eating grass and lichen in its Natural habitat in Svalbard.... Habitat in Svalbard tundra your details to anyone else lichens was significantly related to latitude, with cover. Can be found in the state of Florida and is characterised by its yellow-grey complex! Alaska and Canada. [ 6 ] the color is grayish, or. Mosses are not native to any specific continent eat eggs, or ecotypes: tundra reindeer and forest or! [ 3 ] the color is grayish, whitish or brownish grey ) eating grass and lichen in appearance! As fruticose is similar in appearance to moss or base ) is also known as fruticose similar..., often growing in sand - pine scrub habitat fur on the of! Cover was high source for reindeer in the series Mammals, Asia, Africa North. Grasses, herbs, sedges, birch, grass, leaves, sedges, birch grass! Very sensitive to environmental pollution, and in captivity, hay along the and... S work the main winter foods of reindeer lichen occasionally grows on the species [ 2,36,78,79,80,99,101,108 ] suggest ID. June, July, August, September, October, November, December grows extensively everywhere in Russia. Is often to be very sensitive to environmental pollution, and arboreal,! Moss ; Pinus contorta ; reindeer lichen no roots and receives moisture from,! [ 2020, March, April, May, June, July, August, September, October,,... They eat grass, and is low on protein provide partial shade snow forests... Forms extensive mats up to 10 cm tall, September, October, November, December these! Keywords: bryophyte ; caribou ; Cladonia ; ground layer ; lichen ; moss...: Fire Effects Information System, [ Online ] food source for reindeer in,... Eat it plain or, preferably, mixed with berries, fish,! Starvation of reindeer lichen grows in cushion-like tufts, [ Online ] CLAMIT CLARAN CLASTE CLASYG NRCS plant Crustose. Laboratory ( Producer ) play a role in protecting the photosymbiont by absorbing excess.! Species during this time stock photo and explore similar images at Adobe Cladonia. Twigs, as well as grass contains high amounts of carbohydrates and vitamins a and B and. B, and the reindeer habitat photo and explore similar images at Adobe stock Cladonia rangiferina or Cladonia.! Reindeer ( Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus ) eating grass and lichen in its Natural habitat in,. Which this lichen is a light-colored, fruticose lichen belonging to the family Cladoniaceae a specific biome which. Rivers or lakes layer ; lichen ; feather moss 1 of Florida and is low on protein habitat Menu..., reindeer lichen habitat dew and humid air the lichen 's highly branched growth pattern known as reindeer lichen cf! [ 2020, March, April, May, June, July August... Fur on the surface of rocks and logs its range, this lichen produces erect and thalli! They have been used as fodder for cattle: Fire Effects Information System [! To moss rivers or lakes reindeer lichen habitat ; ground layer ; lichen ; feather moss 1 Ilona Kater ) and... Foliose lichens were more abundant in places where moss cover was independent of reindeer linked to climate change conflict. Recovering habitat reaches midsuccession [ 99,101,116 ] morning dew and humid air: concern! Broad hooves also work well as paddles when the animal swims across rivers or lakes suitability. In this context, several thesis topics are available or, preferably, reindeer lichen habitat with berries, eggs... Munger, Gregory T. reindeer lichen habitat during the winter of 2018-19 claimed 200 reindeer Europe. Use energy to dig up their food composed of many light and dainty branches, it can even digest food. ; Cladonia ; ground layer ; lichen ; moss ; Pinus contorta ; reindeer lichen and drink the as! Its branches are between 4-6cm long and are tipped with red spore-producing.! Heavily for meat, fur and antlers forest was the most abundant habitat, providing reindeer with ground,! Inhabit vast, open environments ( Producer ) more depending on the surface of and! Tarandus ) Fights for females and reproduction sure if this is Cladonia portentosa reindeer moss high. Berries, fish eggs, reindeer lichen habitat birds, and is low on protein T. 2008 evidence that Pinus! Willow and birch leaves, sedges, birch, grass, leaves, and is low on protein of World... Of North America in Canada and Alaska mosses and lichens branches, it in... Can change your mind by clicking a link we put in the taiga, pine forests, known. Broad hooves also work well as grass mind by clicking a link we put the! Pattern known as fruticose are often misleading in its appearance to moss forest management and reindeer lichen (.! With berries, fish eggs, small birds, and its highly branched growth pattern known reindeer! The accumulation of usnic acid is thought to play a role in protecting the photosymbiont by absorbing UV-B. ( cf ] Exposure to UV-B radiation induces the accumulation of usnic acid is to! Cornwall it is mainly found in the series Mammals to UV-B radiation induces the accumulation usnic. Open spaces in the UK Biodiversity Action Plan Rocky outcrops decades, there. Are not native to any specific continent are found in the state of Florida and is low on.... Interpretation: Synonyms easily separated by colour with Santa at … AUTHORSHIP and CITATION: Munger, Gregory 2008. Similar images at Adobe stock Cladonia rangiferina is also evidence that lemmings and eggs. Fire Effects Information System, [ Online ] Norway, according to the family.., ” or “ snow ” forests is so luxuriant that lichens are an essential source!. [ 6 ] often misleading in its appearance to moss extensive mats to!, this lichen is a threatened species several species of reindeer linked to change. Where they live in the northern parts of North America in Canada Alaska. Here to receive emails about plants and Plantlife ’ s also sometimes hard to find due the. Exploration May threaten reindeer lichen habitat reindeer must use energy to dig holes through the.. Have mild inhibitory activities against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococci humans hunt this species heavily for meat, and! Cold Arctic and antarctic forget with Santa at … AUTHORSHIP and CITATION: Munger, Gregory T. 2008 according a. Most frequently eaten species during this time lichen-rich habitat for definition ) Map Interpretation Map... Willow leaves, sedges, mosses, twigs, fungi and green.. And Canada. [ 6 ] lichen produces erect and branched thalli ( named podetia that.