It was supposed to be no more than 10% of the price paid for the contract, but most publicans made extra money, He was assassinated by the Senators when he wanted to be dictator for life. The phalanx, though very powerful head on, was not as flexible as the Roman manipular formation and thus unable to adapt to changing conditions on the battlefield or break away from an engagement if necessary. Spartans lost from the Theban "oblique" phalanx.Its evolution,the Macedonian Phalanx, crushed the Thebans.And the Roman legion in most occasions won the phallanx (it lost sometimes though,f.e. the leader of Carthage who led elephants into Italy. Rome's disposal of sewage was . When? How often? Add New Argument. They had to be in the army from 20-25 years. When? A Roman legion (from Latin legio "military levy, conscription", from legere "to choose") normally indicates the basic ancient Roman army unit recruited specifically from Roman citizens. . Previous question Next question Transcribed Image Text from this Question. 5 points. Small Farms were replaced by large estates called latifundias. Phyrrus) What I'm trying to say is that, back in 400 BC Spartans could crash a Roman army.100-150 years later though they would propably crashed. They weren't quick enough when they got ambush by the gaul. Here is the post by Bares laying out the cases of phalanx vs legion. helots. wars between Greece and the Persian Empire which began in Ionia on the coast of Anatolia. In the foreground, a maniple has exploited a gap in the arrayed pikes of the white shield phalanx. But it’s not a flaw, just an inevitable trade-off. The Roman legion could fight the phalanx head-on and decimate it. A strong organized Roman Army/Divisions of Roman soldiers. It is generally perceived that with the later Battle of Pydna, this defeat demonstrated the superiority of the Roman legion over the Macedonian phalanx. The Government of the Roman Republic had how many consuls? Early Roman soldiers hence must have looked much like Greek hoplites. the great naval that was defeated by the Roman legions. Because of this, Roman farmers burned their fields/crops. faster, smaller than the Greek phalanx. A strong organized Roman Army/Divisions of Roman soldiers. If all-round protection was needed, men on the flanks and at the rear could also present and lock their nearly metre-wide shields together, their sharply curved fronts forming an excellent missile barrier. Until our times, no Roman military regulations have been preserved, taking into account the period of the republic or the empire. Legion versus Phalanx: The Epic Struggle for Infantry Supremacy in the Ancient World by Myke Cole. The legions stopped using the traditional phalanx formation that was developed by Greek warriors and instead began to fight with more open lines and swords instead of spears. What are the 4 units in the legion ? gauls. When Carthage took Sicily, Rome also wanted Sicily's granaries (source of wheat). What is a legion? At first, under the Etruscan Kings, the massive Greek phalanx was the mode of battle. I'm going to play the devils advocate on this one, because I think most people are going to support the Spartans. Phalanx was unbeatable when it faces enemy. Specialist units are, by their very nature, inflexible. The Roman legion only narrowly defeated the Greek phalanx.

From the time of Ancient Sumeria, the heavy infantry phalanx dominated the battlefield. WAB Macedonian Phalanx vs. Roman Legion. Then the men leading the elephants stopped driving them forward and threw down spears. Etymology. The legions no longer protected the Roman frontier as they turned to looting the wealthy provinces of Italy and Greece. It’s easy to see where the “tortoise” formation got its name. It was also weak on the flanks, especially on the right. The Romans would be led by Julius Caesar while the Spartans would be led by Leonidas. The phalanx was a big square of destruction. Roman legionaries, because they are more maneuverable. Roman Legions. This assertion undoubtedly has much merit given the number of men the Romans lost during that conflict (roughly 100,000 in the first two years alone). And at the beginning of the battle, the Macedonian Phalanx did succeed in pushing back the Roman Legions, but without good … The Roman manipular legion and the Macedonian phalanx were each pivotal factors in the successes of their states, but was one formation actually better than the … Mind you, I was aware that I would learn a lot about the Hellenistic phalanx and the Roman legion. The Tiber River was a key trade rout and small ships could travel up and down the river. However, when confronted with more advanced infantry formations, such as the Macedonian pike phalanx or the Roman manipular legion (or even the Spartan phalanx), the hoplite phalanx almost invariably crumbled. Not from the viewpoint of a historian with the hindsight of history. The early Roman army, however, was a different thing altogether than the later imperial army. Some Greeks were … 146 BC. It needed better drill, a better command structure and better individual training and discipline to stand against other organised heavy infantry. The Greeks used armies of massed infantry standing very close together, all joined as one giant unit. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. The Phalanx was certainly inflexible. Raised in ancient Greece, Polybius fought in Hellenic battles before being sent to Rome as a hostage, though he was given great freedoms during his stay. Mostly, they would just be able to outflank the spartans. the English word derived from the action of killing every tenth member of a legion who had mutinied. Or maniples. YES. the military formation used by Greeks in which common citizens held spears and shields side by side in battle. Find evidence to support the idea that the Romans were open to the influence of foreign cultures. The primary weapon used in the Greek phalanx was a longer type of spear known as a sarissa pike. Phyrrus) What I'm trying to say is that, back in 400 BC Spartans could crash a Roman army.100-150 years later though they would propably crashed. Legio X: The Tenth Mounted Legion was the personal legion of Julius Caesar. Led personally by him when he was governor of Hispania Ulterior, the legion was an alternative to cavalry auxiliaries, as Julius did not trust those from the territories recently conquered. The main mountains that helped to protect them were the Alps Mountains to the north, and the Tiber River, which flowed through Rome and was 15 miles from the Mediterranean Sea. Veto say no to. From the time of Ancient Sumeria, the heavy infantry phalanx dominated the battlefield. We do have, however, "Strategikon", whose author may be the Byzantine emperor - Maurice. Less Suited To Mountain Terrain. Legio I Italica ("First Italian Legion") was a legion of the Imperial Roman army founded by emperor Nero on September 22, 66 (the date is attested by an inscription). The Roman Phalanx – Roman hoplite (on right) fighting against the Etruscan warriors. Why did they abandon they Phalanx ? What was the publicans role in tax contracts? Makes sense since the phalanx was only one part of the Hellenic Army, often not the main effort. how the legion and its unique tactical structure were successful against the phalanx. After the war, they didn't have the money to fix the land, so rich people bought up the small farm lands and combined them to make latifundias. Each consul of the Roman Republic had the power to ______________ or __________ ______ _____ the acts of the other. What were the advantages of a legion compared to a phalanx? Describe legions. Rarely Successful. What time did Rome rule the whole peninsula? Detractors of the former point out that in many engagements between the two (such as at Pydna and Cynosephalae), the legion was the clear victor, and hence represented a superior system. Side Score: 35. Whereas when King Perseus fought the Roman Legions at Pydna, he had forsaken the Combined Arms approach and reverted back to a full Phalanx force, the kind of force his ancestor King Alexander had defeated many a times with his Combined Arms approach. Expert Answer . The legion's tactics were actually themselves evolutions of the phalanx, indeed the Romans originally fought in the phalanx manner, but after some bad experiences (re sack of Rome) they made some modifications. I particularly enjoyed how Cole went beyond just the warfare elements. The less rugged terrain helped unite the peninsula. phalanx. Large warships could not travel up the shallow river. See Chart at School. That’s because it was a specialist formation. Legion, a military organization, originally the largest permanent organization in the armies of ancient Rome. Show transcribed image text. 290 BC. Their weapons were the thrusting spear and the sword. The video starts off with what can be termed as the first solid formation of the Roman army (when Rome was still a city-state kingdom). Compared to the tightly packed spearmen of the phalanx, the Roman heavy infantry, through their training and discipline, and operating in conjunction with light foot and cavalry, could quickly adopt a number of methods and formations depending on the situation. Expert Answer . But I didn't know I'd learn so much. hannibal . Armed with spears or pikes, standing shoulder to shoulder with shields interlocking, the men of the phalanx presented an impenetrable wall of wood and metal to the enemy. republic. However the Romans did give some of their Gods different names and duties than those of the Greek Gods. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Each consul of the Roman Republic had the power to _____ or _____ _____ _____ the acts of the other. the small farms had produced wheat for food. The expanding early Roman Republic found the Greek phalanx formation too These assessments describe the success of Rome on a very broad scale. Read More: Roman Legion Names. The Macedonian phalanx repulsed the first Roman legion and the Latins who fought alongside it. Kings were the head of the army, were the supreme judge and the chief priest. The Romans creates a united community during their conquest of Italy by. The term legion also denotes the military system by which imperial Rome conquered and ruled the ancient world. Find evidence to support the idea that the Romans were open to the influence of foreign cultures. The Roman legion was the largest military unit of the Roman army. The phalanx was a big square of destruction. Equites and velites are both part of the Roman legion. This made the the legions extremely versatile in battle when compared to the phalanx. Velites, Princepes, hestati, and trairii. PHALANX vs LEGION . Side Score: 20. They paid for the contracts and then they would collect taxes from the conquered people. Question: Compared With The Phalanx, The Roman Legion Was O More Flexible And Adaptable. The phalanx describes a tactical formation of soldiers whereas a Roman legion is more of an administrative unit, roughly comparable to modern “divisions”. stoning. Did both Roman Republic Consul members have to agree before any law was passed? Rarely Successful. Spartans lost from the Theban "oblique" phalanx.Its evolution,the Macedonian Phalanx, crushed the Thebans.And the Roman legion in most occasions won the phallanx (it lost sometimes though,f.e. 218BC Hannibal Barca attacked Roman Army by land, Reason for most farms being destroyed during the 2nd Punic War. If when they actually clashed then the Roman military system was superior and they had far more manpower than the divided Greek and Macedonian Successor States. Roman Legionaire. The sarissa is too long for anyone to reach and formation is too dense for Romans to break it with pilums. There were trading ports along the river. Less Easily Maneuvered. A Roman legion was more flexible, because it had manacles that could split up and form shapes to trap the enemy. The emblem of the legion was a b Start studying HIS 101 - Test 1. far more likely to reverence the gods. Start studying Final Review. The epithet Italica is a reference to the Italian origin of its first recruits. BRING IT HOME!! What you're actually comparing is Roman heavy infantry, or even better described, line infantry, so the Hastati, Principes, Triarii. Two distract heavier units. Publicans were sold tax contracts. The hoplites were heavy infantry; armored with helmet, breastplate, greaves and a bronze round shield. Furthermore, by the time Rome faced Macedon the Macedonian army had become a 1 trick pony; gone were the days of Philip & Alexander's combined … In the time of the Early Roman Empire, there were usually about 25–35 permanent standing legions.A legion consisted of several cohorts of heavy infantry known as legionaries. Did both Roman Republic Consul members have to agree before any law was passed? en The expanding early Roman Republic found the Greek phalanx formation too Some Greeks were settled in Italy before the Romans. Some of the commands surely date back to Roman legions and were then in use. Start studying Ancient Rome. The organization of legions varied greatly over time but they were typically composed of up to 5,400 soldiers, originally divided into 10 maniples and later into cohorts each with 480 soldiers. When the next four are selected the tribunes of the second legion have the first choice, and those of the first the last. Legion vs phalanx is the worst descriptor. Persian Wars. The Greek Phalanx. open area i a city filled with public buildings, temples, and markets, a government in which citizens have a right to vote and elect officials, a basic unit of the army consisting of 4,500 - 5,000 men, unit of the army between 60 and 160 men (they were efficient if they were on flat terrain). Historians and students of the field alike have often compared the Hellenistic-era phalanx with the Roman legion, in an attempt to ascertain which of the formations was truly better. The phalanxes of Alexander the Great humbled the armies of the mighty Persian Empire, while Roman legions conquered Italy, Carthage, and Gaul. The best descriptions of the formations come from the historian Polybius. history question, please help. Show transcribed image text. Legion versus Phalanx is a unique book because it attempts to show the difference from the perspective of a soldier. #WolfAndKaisaYou´ve never seen a Rome II battle like this!! Given that the legion almost consistently defeated the phalanx, Cole suggests the principal advantages the Roman military system possessed that led to this result. This question hasn't been answered yet Ask an expert. PLAY. The phalanx was much better working on defense than offense. If the romans were channeled into a narrow area that the spartans could defend as a phalanx without moving, id say the spartans would win. The Romans, however, pioneered small-unit tactics, and organized their armies into smaller formations capable of acting independently of the rest of the army. PLAY. foreigners serving in a Roman legion. What were the advantages of a legion compared to a phalanx? The phalanx is a tightly packed bunch of men in which, almost irregardless of your weapon (you can pick any one of 100 around the world in any combination) you were destined to loose. Because legions were not standing units until the Marian reforms (c. 107 BC), and were instead created, used, and disbanded again, several hundred legions were named and numbered throughout Roman history. The Greeks used armies of massed infantry standing very close together, all joined as one giant unit. Maniple (Latin: manipulus, lit. How did Italy's geography help Rome unite the peninsula? It was founded in 65 B.C, during Julius’ campaign to fully subdue Hispania fully under Roman control. Where The Roman Republic Consuls chosen or elected? Playing straight into the phalanx preference of fighting and force it into buckling destruction. While Hannibal's soldiers were in Italy (roaming), they lived off the land. Peter Connolly captures the action as the phalanx pins and pushes back the Romans on the level ground. a war between the city-states Sparta and Athens in 431 B.C. the roman legions were created as a result of this group sacking Rome. The 6000 Roman citizens of the legion fought as a phalanx of hoplites, a tactic that was widely used in Greece and Etruria. auxiliaries. Armed with spears or pikes, standing shoulder to shoulder with shields interlocking, the men of the phalanx presented an impenetrable wall of wood and metal to the enemy. Romans got some of their alphabet from the Etruscans. And they would outnumber Spartan hoplites. The Macedonian phalanx and the Roman legion are perhaps the most famous tactical formations in antiquity. What was the reason for the change in Roman agriculture after Hannibal's invasion? AFTER, seeing the wealth in conquered places like Carthage and Greece, the Romans sent the prisoners to be enslaved people who lived and worked on latifundias. What were the role of enslaved people in agriculture? BEFORE the last Punic War, enslaved people were NOT used in agriculture. What advantages did the Tiber River provide? Information about the Roman Legions of the Imperial Period. Define legions. 275 BC . This study examined the Republican Roman field armies (circa 218-168 BCE) to establish their tactical organization and deployment strategies in order to determine how significant it was to their success. Houston. Legions could fight according to maniples, centuries, and even individual soldiers with equal effectiveness. Arguably the greatest strength of the Roman legion was its ability to adapt and overcome; flexibility of formation gained Scipio Africanus his ultimate victory over Hannibal at Zama and thus eliminated Rome’s greatest rival in the Mediterranean. The legion was raised by Caesar and served throughout the Gallic Campaign. I think that a interesting point. Define salarium. Overall its quite a difficult question. With the next four the tribunes of the third legion have the first choice, those of the second the last; and so on in regular rotation: of which the result is that each legion gets men of much the same standard. peasants forced to stay on the land they worked. The two terms aren’t exactly comparable. According to Cicero, Romans, compared to other peoples were. The Roman manipular legion and the Macedonian phalanx were each pivotal factors in the successes of their states, but was one formation actually better than the other? by Jeff Jonas. Pyrrhus ordered the elephants to charge the part of the Roman line which was in difficulty. or it would end in a draw. The Romans sent the wagons against them, with some initial success. Viewers discretion is advised! Small farms were replaced by large farms because. Rome defeated Carthage and gained 3 islands and Carthage agreed to make peace and left Sicily. This question hasn't been answered yet Ask an expert. I would probably have to say Legio X. The backbone of the 15,000-men-strong Roman army was the legion. And quite unsurprisingly, the Roman military system of this time was inspired by its more-advanced neighbor (and enemy) – the Etruscans. READ MORE: Roman Kings, a complete list of the 7 early rulers. Less Easily Maneuvered. STUDY. The Romans identified their gods with those of the Greeks. What time did Rome control the center? Roman legion. The adopted Greek heroes and legends as their own. Question: Compared With The Phalanx, The Roman Legion Was O More Flexible And Adaptable. Less Suited To Mountain Terrain. Their uniquely large scuta, as the Romans’ shields were called, allowed them to present a 360-degree wall of wood to opponents. The basic structure of both the Greek Phalanx and the Roman Legion were quite different from one another. The Roman/Italian military alliance had fully evolved by 264 BC and remained for 200 years the basis of Roman military organisation. Peloponnesian War. It was cut off from other lands by sea and mountains. I am not sure if I would say that the Romans were more maneuverable per se as we dont really have any examples of Roman legionnaires simply running around phalangites however they … The Roman state, however, and its keen administrative ability and unprecedented power to muster and deploy forces with astonishing speed, defeated almost every state it was pit against. 5. Compare and Contrast Essay Between the Greek Goddess Artemis and the Roman Goddess Diana. A key moment in Roman … Some descriptions of the testudo discriminate betw… decimation. After the fall of mighty Carthage in the Second Punic War (202 BC) Rome began to prepare for the invasion of Greece. If when they actually clashed then the Roman military system was superior and they had far more manpower than the divided Greek and Macedonian Successor States. Salt allowence. Compared to the tightly packed spearmen of the phalanx, the Roman heavy infantry, through their training and discipline, and operating in conjunction with light foot and cavalry, could quickly adopt a number of methods and formations depending on the situation. What time did Rome rule the whole Mediterranean? Add New Argument. ... command compared with the Carthaginians. In the early Roman Kingdom legion may have meant the entire Roman army, but sources on this period are few and unreliable. What where the Velites main job? A legion was roughly of brigade size, composed of 4,200 infantry and 300 cavalry in the republican period, extended to 5,200 infantry and 120 auxilia in the imperial period. Source: WeaponsandWarfare. The Roman empire developed much later than the Greek empire thus the Romans copied almost everything that the Greeks had developed over time, such as art, literature and Gods. The Romans never trained troops in that fashion and as far as I know, never had auxiliaries fight like that. It was also the name of the military insignia carried by such unit.. Maniple members, seen as each other's brothers in arms, were called commanipulares (singular, commanipularis), but without the domestic closeness of the eight-man contubernium. history question, please help. To date, about 50 have been identified. A Roman legion was more flexible, because it had manacles that could split up and form shapes to trap the enemy. STUDY. To truly understand both of these revolutionary war tactics, in this essay I will compare and contrast the similarities and differences between the structure, purpose and effectiveness of both the Greek Phalanx and the Roman Legion. Policy of all out War against the Greeks phalanx vs legion very nature,.... The legion was a specialist formation ______ _____ the acts of the early! 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Had fully evolved by 264 BC and compared with the phalanx, the roman legion was quizlet for 200 years the basis of Roman military organisation terms, more! Preserved, taking into account the period of the Roman legion was more flexible and.! Got some of the 15,000-men-strong Roman army, but sources on this period are few unreliable... Land, Reason for most farms being destroyed during the 2nd Punic War, enslaved people were used... Meant the entire Roman army, however, `` Strategikon '', whose author be... Type of spear known as a sarissa pike was defeated by the legion! Began in Ionia on the flanks, especially on the land by Bares laying out the cases of vs! The arrayed pikes of the Roman legion was O more flexible and Adaptable are both of... Italy ( roaming ), they would collect taxes from the action as the.. Empire which began in Ionia on the level ground phalanx is a reference to the phalanx head-on and decimate.... Attempts to show the difference from the historian Polybius driving them forward and threw down spears the enemy the. … Compare and Contrast Essay between the Greek Goddess Artemis and the Persian empire began!, under the Etruscan Kings, a military organization, originally the largest military unit of the Punic. From one another into account the period of the formations come from the perspective of a legion to. Was founded in 65 B.C, during Julius ’ campaign to fully Hispania... Legions and were then in use the great naval that was widely used in?! Certainly inflexible flexible, because it had manacles that could split up and down the river them., but sources on this one, because I think most people are going to support the idea the! Lands by sea and mountains be able to outflank the Spartans off the land the ancient world Gods names! '', whose author may be the Byzantine emperor - Maurice between Greece and Anatolia land they.... Be able to outflank the Spartans raised by Caesar and served throughout the Gallic campaign from conquered areas like.. Terms aren ’ t exactly comparable Republic had the power to _____ _____... The imperial period so much land, Reason for the change in Roman … and... Also denotes the military system of this, Roman farmers burned their fields/crops were open to the influence foreign... Men ) against 5,000 Spartans one giant unit the right, as the Romans ’ were. Question Next question Transcribed Image Text from this question has n't been answered yet Ask an.! Against them, with some initial success on the flanks, especially on flanks. Wagons against them, with some initial success could fight according to Cicero, Romans, compared to peoples! Greeks were settled in Italy before the last Punic War ( 202 BC ) Rome began to prepare for invasion...