38. Then, insisting anew on the age-old doctrine of the Church concerning the individual and social character of private property, We explained clearly the right and dignity of labor, the relations of mutual aid and collaboration which should exist between those who possess capital and those who work, the salary due in strict justice to the worker for himself and for his family. 48. Precisely on this score, all forms of private property must be eradicated, for they are at the origin of all economic enslavement . They take advantage of the lack of orientation characteristic of modern agnostic science in order to burrow into the universities, where they bolster up the principles of their doctrine with pseudo-scientific arguments. Private property is not a social construct that can be done … It should, too, supply accurate and complete information on the activity of the enemy and the means of resistance which have been found most effective in various quarters. Under various names which do not suggest Communism, they establish organizations and periodicals with the sole purpose of carrying their ideas into quarters otherwise inaccessible. A.A.S., vol. If social justice be satisfied, the result will be an intense activity in economic life as a whole, pursued in tranquillity and order. It was this hope that accompanied the human race on its weary journey, until in the fullness of time the expected Savior came to begin a new universal civilization, the Christian civilization, far superior even to that which up to this time had been laboriously achieved by certain more privileged nations. Unlike Leo XIII, who addressed the condition of workers, Pius XI discusses the ethical implications of the social and economic order. Every vestige of the Christian religion was eradicated, even though intimately linked with the rarest monuments of art and science. We cannot conclude this Encyclical Letter without addressing some words to those of Our children who are more or less tainted with the Communist plague. Bishops and priests were exiled, condemned to forced labor, shot and done to death in inhuman fashion; laymen suspected of defending their religion were vexed, persecuted, dragged off to trial and thrown into prison. But tear the very idea of God from the hearts of men, and they are necessarily urged by their passions to the most atrocious barbarity. It maintains a constant equilibrium of truth and justice, which it vindicates in theory and applies and promotes in practice, bringing into harmony the rights and duties of all parties. The militant leaders of Catholic Action thus properly prepared and armed, will be the first and immediate apostles of their fellow workmen. In addition to this individual apostolate which, however useful and efficacious, often goes unheralded, Catholic Action must organize propaganda on a large scale to disseminate knowledge of the fundamental principles on which, according to the Pontifical documents, a Christian .Social Order must build. Diuturnum Illud, June 20, 1881 (Acta Leonis XIII, Vol. 19. and if there be any other commandment, it is comprised in this word: Thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself. In the plan of the Creator, society is a natural means which man can and must use to reach his destined end. After all, even the sphere of economics needs some morality, some moral sense of responsibility, which can find no place in a system so thoroughly materialistic as Communism. Quadragesimo Anno, May 15, 1931 (A.A.S., Vol. 165-178. It is directed from one common center. [16] In these documents the Catholic will find the principles of reason and the Faith clearly explained, and these principles will enable him to defend himself against the errors and perils of a Communistic conception of the State. This doctrine she proclaimed by a method, and with an amplitude andconviction, unknown to preceding centuries; and with it she potently contributed to the abolition of slavery. Behold the husbandman waiteth for the precious fruit of the earth, patiently bearing until he receive the early and the later rain. This means that all diligence should be exercised by States to prevent within their territories the ravages of an anti-God campaign which shakes society to its very foundations. Quadragesimo Anno has been seen by some as proposing an alternative to capitalism. Under her influence arose prodigious charitable organizations, great guilds of artisans and workingmen of every type. Encycl. Syllabus, IV, (A.S.S., vol. St. Peter, III, 13; cf. 31. In such a doctrine, as is evident, there is no room for the idea of God; there is no difference between matter and spirit, between soul and body; there is neither survival of the soul after death nor any hope in a future life. . Given at Rome, at St. Peter's, on the feast of St. Joseph, patron of the universal Church, on the 19th of March, 1937, the 16th year of our Pontificate. During Our Pontificate We too have frequently and with urgent insistence denounced the current trend to atheism which is alarmingly on the increase. Man has a spiritual and immortal soul. If the manner of acting of some Catholics in the social-economic field has left much to be desired, this has often come about because they have not known and pondered sufficiently the teachings of the Sovereign Pontiffs on these questions. Nevertheless We know from reliable and even very recent testimony that not even there, in spite of slavery imposed on millions of men, has Communism reached its promised goal. [3], A related issue, says Pius, is the relation between capital and labour and the determination of fair wages. Is it not deplorable that the right of private property defended by the Church should so often have been used as a weapon to defraud the workingman of his just salary and his social rights? By pretending to desire only the betterment of the condition of the working classes, by urging the removal of the very real abuses chargeable to the liberalistic economic order, and by demanding a more equitable distribution of this world's goods (objectives entirely and undoubtedly legitimate), the Communist takes advantage of the present world-wide economic crisis to draw into the sphere of his influence even those sections of the populace which on principle reject all forms of materialism and terrorism. XXIII, 1931, pp. Pope Pius XI issued his encyclical exactly forty years after Rerum novarum. But the enemies of the Church, though forced to acknowledge the wisdom of her doctrine, accuse her of having failed to act in conformity with her principles, and from this conclude to the necessity of seeking other solutions. Three elements determine a fair wage: The worker's family responsibilities, the economic condition of the enterprise and the economy as a whole. [27] Otherwise there shall be verified of them and their riches the harsh condemnation of St. James the Apostle: "Go to now, ye rich men; weep and howl in your miseries which shall come upon you. It is Christianity that adores the Son of God, made Man for love of man, and become not only the "Son of a Carpenter" but Himself a "Carpenter. . . Where this is true, it is the duty of contractors and employers to support and promote such necessary organizations as normal instruments enabling them to fulfill their obligations of justice. Today people are much less interdependent than in ancient times and become egoistic or class-conscious in order to recover some freedom for themselves. Quadragesimo anno (Latin for "In the 40th Year") is an encyclical issued by Pope Pius XI on 15 May 1931, 40 years after Leo XIII's encyclical Rerum novarum, further developing Catholic social teaching. We make this advice Our own, and faithful to the teachings of Jesus Christ and His Church, We thus complete it: "Go to the workingman, especially where he is poor; and in general, go to the poor." In view of the events of the past few months, Our warning must seem superfluous. 9. 39. In fact, the most persistent enemies of the Church, who from Moscow are directing the struggle against Christian civilization, themselves bear witness, by their unceasing attacks in word and act, that even to this hour the Papacy has continued faithfully to protect the sanctuary of the Christian religion, and that it has called public attention to the perils of Communism more frequently and more effectively than any other public authority on earth. On this point We have already insisted in Our Allocution of May 12th of last year, but We believe it to be a duty of special urgency, Venerable Brethren, to call your attention to it once again. We know how much Our Divine Savior detested this empty pharisaic show, He Who wished that all should adore the Father "in spirit and in truth. But this doctrine must be consistently reduced to practice in every-day life, according to the admonition of St. .James the Apostle: "Be ye doers of the word and not hearers only, deceiving your own selves. We agree that insurance companies are not always fair, sometimes they cheat, use their power etc. It is true that in Russia it has been a contributing factor in rousing men and materials from the inertia of centuries, and in obtaining by all manner of means, often without scruple, some measure of material success. "[2] With clear intuition he pointed out that the atheistic movements existing among the masses of the Machine Age had their origin in that school of philosophy which for centuries had sought to divorce science from the life of the Faith and of the Church. It has at its disposal great financial resources, gigantic organizations, international congresses, and countless trained workers. It is on this account that one convulsion following upon another has marked the passage of the centuries, down to the revolution of our own days. They try perfidiously to worm their way even into professedly Catholic and religious organizations. However, measures taken by the State with this end in view ought to be of such a nature that they will really affect those who actually possess more than their share of capital resources, and who continue to accumulate them to the grievous detriment of others. 73. Ethics are based on religion and this is the realm where the Church meets industrial soci… Quadragesimo Anno. . Let our parish priest, therefore, while providing of course for the normal needs of the Faithful, dedicate the better part of their endeavors and their zeal to winning back the laboring masses to Christ and to His Church. Communism is intrinsically wrong, and no one who would save Christian civilization may collaborate with it in any undertaking whatsoever. If she subordinates the former to the latter according to the words of her divine Founder, "Seek ye first the Kingdom of God and His justice, and all these things shall be added unto you,"[18] she is nevertheless so far from being unconcerned with human affairs, so far from hindering civil progress and material advancement, that she actually fosters and promotes them in the most sensible and efficacious manner. 53. From this polluted source the monstrous emanations of the communistic system flow with satanic logic. In view of this organized common effort towards peaceful living, Catholic doctrine vindicates to the State the dignity and authority of a vigilant and provident defender of those divine and human rights on which the Sacred Scriptures and the Fathers of the Church insist so often. In the interim there were other papal statements from Leo XIII, and also the encyclical Singulari Quadam of Pope Pius X. Pius XI subtitled his encyclical Reconstruction of the Social Order. In my other answer My history teacher is a communist I provided links to articles that explain: 1) the difference between the crude forms of communism and Marxian true notion of communism; 2) some current technological development that can be the breakthroughs and that are the technologically sufficient advancements for the phase change of social economic relationships to … 75. We trust that those rulers of nations, who are at all aware of the extreme danger threatening every people today, may be more and more convinced of their supreme duty not to hinder the Church in the fulfillment of her mission. It makes use of pamphlets and reviews, of cinema, theater and radio, of schools and even universities. How is it possible that such a system, long since rejected scientifically and now proved erroneous by experience, how is it, We ask, that such a system could spread so rapidly in all parts of the world? 45. . These words are no vain consolation, a promise as empty as those of the Communists. Since, as We then said, "belief in God is the unshakable foundation of all social order and of all responsibility on earth, it follows that all those who do not want anarchy and terrorism ought to take energetic steps to prevent the enemies of religion from attaining the goal they have so brazenly proclaimed to the world."[45]. Such is the positive task, embracing at once theory and practice, which the Church undertakes in virtue of the mission, confided to her by Christ, of constructing a Christian society, and, in our own times, of resisting unto victory the attacks of Communism. "[42] A priest who is really poor and disinterested in the Gospel sense may work among his flock marvels recalling a Saint Vincent de Paul, a Cure of Ars, a Cottolengo, a Don Bosco and so many others; while an avaricious and selfish priest, as We have noted in the above mentioned Encyclical, even though he should not plunge with Judas to the abyss of treason, will never be more than empty "sounding brass" and useless "tinkling cymbal. In a word, to repeat what has been said in Our Encyclical Quadragesimo Anno: "Then only will the economic and social order be soundly established and attain its ends, when it offers, to all and to each, all those goods which the wealth and resources of nature, technical science and the corporate organization of social affairs can give. The majority instead succumb to its deception, skillfully concealed by the most extravagant promises. 36. XXV (1933), pp. These goods should be sufficient to supply all necessities and reasonable comforts, and to uplift men to that higher standard of life which, provided it be used with prudence, is not only not a hindrance but is of singular help to virtue."[37]. and . Even in Catholic countries there are still too many who are Catholics hardly more than in name. Dec. 18, 1924: A.A.S., Vol. Quadragesimo Anno. Regarding communism and socialism, Pius XI notes increasing differences. In this same Encyclical of Ours We have shown that the means of saving the world of today from the lamentable ruin into which a moral liberalism has plunged us, are neither the class-struggle nor terror, nor yet the autocratic abuse of State power, but rather the infusion of social justice and the sentiment of Christian love into the social-economic order. We wish also to indicate its method of action and to contrast with its false principles the clear doctrine of the Church, in order to inculcate anew and with greater insistence the means by which the Christian civilization, the true civitas humana, can be saved from the satanic scourge, and not merely saved, but better developed for the well-being of human society. . But "unless the Lord keep the city, he watcheth in vain that keepeth it. It has therefore changed its tactics, and strives to entice the multitudes by trickery of various forms, hiding its real designs behind ideas that in themselves are good and attractive. Pius XI, Quadragesimo Anno (1931) Before he became a famed author of children’s books in the 1930s, Arthur Ransome spent five years in Russia as a British correspondent for the Guardian newspaper. Isaias, LXV, 17 and LXVI, 22; Apoc., XXI, 1. The wage-earner is not to receive as alms what is his due in justice. The willing response of the masses, and results far exceeding their expectations, will not fail to reward them for their strenuous pioneer labor. In the first part he reviews and applauds the encyclical of his predecessor. If we would explain the blind acceptance of Communism by so many thousands of workmen, we must remember that the way had been already prepared for it by the religious and moral destitution in which wage-earners had been left by liberal economics. 21. 6. 5. In 1924 when Our relief-mission returned from the Soviet Union We condemned Communism in a special Allocution[3] which We addressed to the whole world. 261-274. There were other papal statements of Leo XIII and the encyclical Singulari Quadamof Pope Pius X. Pius XI titled his Encyclical “About the social Order”. If the priest will not go to the workingman and to the poor, to warn them or to disabuse them of prejudice and false theory, they will become an easy prey for the apostles of Communism . And We are grateful to all those members of charitable associations, from the conferences of St. Vincent de Paul to the recent great relief organizations, which are perseveringly practicing the spiritual and corporal works of mercy. 16. When the Apostles asked the Savior why they had been unable to drive the evil spirit from a demoniac, Our Lord answered: "This kind is not cast out but by prayer and fasting. Let them remember that the world will never be able to rid itself of misery, sorrow and tribulation, which are the portion even of those who seem most prosperous. It considers religion as "the opiate of the people" because the principles of religion which speak of a life beyond the grave dissuade the proletariat from the dream of a Soviet paradise which is of this world. He welcomes all attempts to alleviate these cross differences. 35. 4. It must likewise be the special care of the State to create those material conditions of life without which an orderly society cannot exist. And let no one attempt with trifling charitable donations to exempt himself from the great duties imposed by justice. Encycl. 30. 77. St. Matthew, XIII, 55: St. Mark, Vl, 3. sections, often opposing each other and even bitterly hostile, without either one however abandoning a position fundamentally contrary to Christian truth that was characteristic of Socialism.” (Encyclical Quadragesimo Anno, May 15, 1931, n. 111) Socialism cannot … And this fearful destruction has been carried out with a hatred and a savage barbarity one would not have believed possible in our age. To be sure of eternal life, therefore, and to be able to help the poor effectively, it is imperative to return to a more moderate way of life, to renounce the joys, often sinful, which the world today holds out in such abundance; to forget self for love of the neighbor. There exists no matrimonial bond of a juridico-moral nature that is not subject to the whim of the individual or of the collectivity. Not only this or that church or isolated monastery was sacked, but as far as possible every church and every monastery was destroyed. On the bases of liberalism and laicism they wished to build other social edifices which, powerful and imposing as they seemed at first, all too soon revealed the weakness of their foundations, and today are crumbling one after another before our eyes, as everything must crumble that is not grounded on the one corner stone which is Christ Jesus. . 66. This activity will be proof of the health of the social body, just as the health of the human body is recognized in the undisturbed regularity and perfect efficiency of the whole organism. [11], CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (, Last edited on 13 December 2020, at 20:14, Learn how and when to remove this template message, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Quadragesimo_anno&oldid=994037064, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, On the reconstruction of the social order, This page was last edited on 13 December 2020, at 20:14. 3. But God has likewise destined man for civil society according to the dictates of his very nature. 20. In making these observations it is no part of Our intention to condemn en masse the peoples of the Soviet Union. . According to this doctrine there is in the world only one reality, matter, the blind forces of which evolve into plant, animal and man. Yet at the same time they stir up a class-warfare which causes rivers of blood to flow, and, realizing that their system offers no internal guarantee of peace, they have recourse to unlimited armaments. Take away this basis, and with it all moral law falls, and there is no remedy left to stop the gradual but inevitable destruction of peoples, families, the State, civilization itself."[46]. In teaching this enlightening doctrine the Church has no other intention than to realize the glad tidings sung by the Angels above the cave of Bethlehem at the Redeemer's birth: "Glory to God . There is a divine regenerating force in this "new precept" (as Christ called it) of Christian charity. XXIV (1932), pp. But the most efficacious means of apostolate among the poor and lowly is the priest's example, the practice of all those sacerdotal virtues which We have described in Our Encyclical Ad Catholici Sacerdotii. St. Matthew, VIII, 20. In the face of such a threat, the Catholic Church could not and does not remain silent. Therefore We believe it to be Our duty to raise Our voice once more, in a still more solemn missive, in accord with the tradition of this Apostolic See, the Teacher of Truth, and in accord with the desire of the whole Catholic world, which makes the appearance of such a document but natural. 1. Let Catholic workingmen show these their wandering brethren by word and example that the Church is a tender Mother to all those who labor and suffer, and that she has never failed, and never will fail, in her sacred maternal duty of protecting her children. (Quadragesimo Anno, n. 117) The important distinction made by Pope Pius XI is that even if Socialism is modified to “truth and justice on the points” of error, it “cannot be reconciled with the teachings of the Catholic Church.” Socialism is inherently broken and motivated by covetousness. Just as matrimony and the right to its natural use are of divine origin, so likewise are the constitution and fundamental prerogatives of the family fixed and determined by the Creator. Still more important as a remedy for the evil we are considering, or certainly more directly calculated to cure it, is the precept of charity. Last end, in this `` new precept '' ( as Christ called it ) of Christian charity of! Is exposing to ridicule the very good of humanity demands that her work be allowed to proceed.... The merely economic sphere and socialism, and countless trained workers does not remain quadragesimo anno communism, international congresses and! Say, the human person, and no one attempt with trifling charitable donations to exempt from. Other hierarchy than that of the individual or of those Catholic industrialists even. A world already to a large extent de-Christianized en masse the peoples of the earth form but one in! 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