These agents are used as additional therapy for patients who remain in refractory status asthmaticus despite maximal inhalational therapy and the use of corticosteroids. Br J Clin Pharmacol 15: 161–166, Dutoit J, Salome CM, Woolcock A J (1987) Inhaled corticosteroids reduce the severity of bronchial hyperresponsiveness in asthma but oral theophylline does not. Therefore, the detection of these compounds is important, and it has been performed also using electrochemical biosensors. In:Andersson K-E, Persson CGA (eds) Anti-asthma xanthines and adenosine. This medication works best when taken on an empty stomach one hour before or two hours after meals. Birkhauser, Basel, pp 115–129, Persson CGA (1985a) On the medical history of xanthines and other remedies for asthma: a tribute to HH Salter. Excerpts, Amsterdam, pp 223–229, Kröll F, Karlsson JA, Nilsson E, Ryrfeldt Å, Persson CGA (1990) Rapid clearance of xanthines from airway and pulmonary tissues. What are the uses of xanthines? So, this post will review this class of asthma medications and talk about their important role in asthma treatment. The pharmacology of anti-asthma xanthines remains a topical field for experimental and clinical research. J Biol Chem 229: 351–357, Boe J, Swedish Socity of Chest Medicine (1988) Salbutamoel in acute asthma–a multicenter study. Bronchodilators or antiasthmatics are medications used to facilitate respiration by dilating the airways. Cite as. Understand how to use the nursing process in the care of patients with asthma and bronchoconstriction. The dosage of each xanthine was incremented from 150 mg twice daily at initiation to 300 and later 450 mgtwice daily depending on the patient's tolerance … NG80: Asthma diagnosis, monitoring and chronic asthma management November 2017 BTS/SIGN British Guideline on the management of asthma September 2016 Aminophylline is a combination of theophylline and ethylenediamine which confers greater solubility in water but can cause an allergic reaction. Pediatrics 60: 840–844, Racineaux JL, Troussier J, Turcant J, Tuchais E, Allain P (1981) Comparison of bronchodilation effects of sablutanol and theophylline. Therapeutic actions of Xanthines Available for Android and iOS devices. Am Rev Respir Dis 137: 36A, Brenner M, Berkowitz R, Marshall N, Strunk RC (1988) Need for theophylline in severe steroid-requiring asthmatics. The derivatives of xanthine that are used most commonly in medicine have a methyl, or CH3, group on them. Drug images are also included. The methylxanthines, theophylline, and dyphylline are used in the treatment of airways obstruction caused by conditions such as asthma, chronic bronchitis, or emphysema. Factors Affecting Theophylline ... Bronchiolitis, bronchiectasis, & asthma Use only if pt has thick secretions w/o a productive cough-causes bronchostiction. Bronchial asthma • Derived from a Greek word meaning difficulty in breathing. Ann Allergy 56: 171–175, Fink G, Mittelman M, Shohat B, Spitzer SA (1987) Theophylline-induced alterations in cellular immunity in asthmatic patients. Biochem Pharmacol 34: 4269–4273, Littenberg B (1988) Aminophylline treatment in severe, acute asthma. Caffeine (present in coffee) and theobromine (present in chocolate) are also methylxanthines. Not logged in We compared the long-term efficacy and tolerability of enprofylline and theophylline given over a 1-year period to adults with asthma. There are multiple modes of action, and different drugs exert varying selectivities. Acta Pharmacol Toxicol 49: 313–316, Persson CGA, Ekman M, Erjefält I (1979) Vascular antipermeability effects of β-receptor antagonist and theophylline in the lung. every 2-4 weeks in allergic/eosinophilic asthma. Effect of different bronchodilators on airway smooth muscle responsiveness to … Select one or more newsletters to continue. Excerpta, Amsterdam, pp 23–40, Persson CGA (1986) Development of safer xanthine drugs for treatment of obstructive airway disease. J Allergy Clin Immunol, 78(4 pt 2):817-824, 01 Oct 1986 Cited by: 16 articles | PMID: 3534062. Review. These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. Research and clinical practice. Br J Pharmacol 93: 909–917, Lunell E, Svedmyr N, Andersson KE, Persson CGA (1983) A novel broncholdilator xanthine apparently without antagonism and tremorogenic effect. They are helpful in symptomatic relief or prevention of bronchial asthma and for bronchospasm associated with COPD. In select patients they produce therapeutc effects which cannot be accomplished by other drugs, singly or in combination, however high the dosages. ipratropium) and xanthines ... can be injected s.c. or i.v. Methylxanthines represent a unique class of drugs for the treatment of asthma. Part of Springer Nature. These drugs will not help acute symptoms, but can be used to prevent symptoms in the future. Influence of cellular levels of cyclic AMP. Trends Neurosci 4: 242–244, Sutton PP, Pavia D, Bateman JRM, Clarke SW (1981) The effect of oral aminophylline on lung mucociliary clearance in man. what effects does xanthines have on the body? The main drug in this category, prazosin, could be of theoretic value in asthma, since α-agonist stimulation in the lung can induce bronchospasm. Xanthines . Thorax 40: 881–886, Persson CGA (1985b) Subdivision of xanthines. Their ability to inhibit cyclic adenosine monophosphate phosphodiesterase has attracted much attention. Eur Respir J 3: 27–32, Weinberger M (1984) Pharmacology and therapeutic use of theophylline. The airway response to the inhalation of four alkyl xanthines was studied in 17 subjects with moderately severe asthma (mean FEV1 1.19 litres, 42% predicted). Symptoms include dyspnoea, wheezing, cough and may be limitation of activity. Historical aspects of xanthines, effects of these compounds in the lung, and xanthine drug research are briefly reviewed. This material is provided for educational purposes only and is not intended for medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. what happens if xanthines are used with other drugs? Br Med J 297: 1506–1510, Clark H, Cushley MJ, Persson CGA, Holgate ST (1989) The protective effects of intravenous theophylline and enprofylline against histamine-and adenosine-5’- monophosphate-provoked bronchoconstriction: implications for the mechanisms of action of xanthine derivatives in asthma. The main role of theophylline and dyphylline is to help maintain good airway control in chronic, persistent, airways disease. Bronchodilator actions of xanthine derivatives administered by inhalation in asthma. The xanthines, which are purine analogues, are non-selective inhibitors of phosphodiesterase and also antagonists at adenosine receptors. Current drug therapy for asthma is highly effective and has evolved from naturally occurring substances through logical pharmaceutical developments. Higher dosages are needed for its bronchodilator effect; however, higher dosages are often associated with toxicity. In: Morley J, Rainsford KD (eds) Pharmacology of asthma. theophylline) are a group of drugs thought to have helpful preventative and reliever properties in the treatment of asthma in children. Arch Klin Med 80: 510–519, Andersson PT, Persson CGA (1988) Developments in anti-asthma glucocorticoids. They treat asthma, COPD, allergies, and other breathing problems. Owing to their ability to relax bronchial muscles, the xanthines are used chiefly in the maintenance treatment of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Xanthines also include medicines such as theophylline, used in the treatment of asthma. Our Drug Interaction Checker provides rapid access to tens of thousands of interactions between brand and generic drugs, over-the-counter drugs, and supplements. Biochem Pharmacol 29: 1085–1092, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-75855-3_7. Xanthine Derivatives. Birkhauser, Basel; 239–260, Andersson KE, Johannesson N, Karlberg B, Persson CGA (1984) Increase in plasma free fatty acids and natriuresis by xanthines may reflect adenosine antagonism. There are dozens of brand names for each of them. Chapter 8 reviews the pharmacology of the xanthine drugs, such as theophylline. These drugs were once the main treatment choices for asthma and bronchospasm. asthma, and as a back up drug in COPD, what is the theraputic range of xanthines? Hence, if we can learn more about the mode of action of theophylline, the major anti-asthma xanthine, we may gain new insights into the mechanisms of asthma. In: Persson CG A, Brattsand R, Laitinen L, Venge P (eds) Inflammatory indices in chronic bronchitis. (1990) Comparison between theophylline and an adenosine non-blocking xanthine in acute asthma. pp 207-225 | N06BC — Xanthine derivatives; Drugs. Am Rev Respir Dis 136: 1174–1178, Erjefält I, Persson CGA (1989) Inflammatory passage of plasma macromolecules into airway wall and lumen. Xanthines act as mild stimulants and help to improve breathing. As a Respiratory Therapist, this is a medication that you are required to be familiar with. This makes them useful to treat asthma, emphysema, and chronic bronchitis. Bronchial asthma is characterised by hyperresponsiveness of tracheobronchial smooth muscle to a variety of stimuli, resulting in narrowing of air tubes, often accompanied by increased secretion, mucosal edema and mucus plugging. Drug Interaction Checker. Xanthines. Theobromine may be helpful for asthma, cough, and other respiratory tract problems, too. Theophylline is an active component of different FDA-approved drugs for asthma and other respiratory conditions . For ratings, users were asked how effective they found the medicine while considering positive/adverse effects and ease of use (1 = not effective, 10 = most effective). Derivatives of xanthine (known collectively as xanthines) are a group of alkaloids commonly used for their effects as mild stimulants and as bronchodilators, notably in the treatment of asthma or influenza symptoms. Sympathomimetics and xanthines are widely used in the treatment of both acute and chronic asthma. Respiration 46: 44, Persson CGA (1982) Universal adenosine receptor antagonism is neither necessary nor desirable with xanthine antiasthmatics. They are generally believed to act primarily by reversing the contraction of airway smooth muscle, although they may have additional properties that may be beneficial in the treatment of asthma (Barnes, 1990). Short-acting muscarinic antagonists (SAMA, e.g. Unable to display preview. Subscribe to Drugs.com newsletters for the latest medication news, new drug approvals, alerts and updates. Methylxanthines are found in high concentrations in tea, coffee, and chocolate. At low dosages, it has an immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory and bronchoprotective effect. Xanthines (e.g. Start studying Xanthines. Am Rev Respir Dis 137: A35, Cushley MJ, Tattersfield AE, Holgate ST (1983) Inhaled adenosine and guanosine on airway resistance in normal and asthmatic subjects. Author: Beatrice Pugliese Date: 24/11/2014. A clinical trial of 289 subjects (DB-RCT) showed a mild improvement in a persistent cough with the use of a theobromine-based compound . Whichever brand of Xanthine is used the patient should remain on the same brand of preparation throughout their treatment. Med Hypoth 8: 515–526, Persson CGA (1983) The profile of action of enprofylline or why adenosine antagonism seems less desirable with xanthine antiasthmatics. J Allergy Clin Immunol 76: 583–590, Perruchoud AP, Yerger L, Abraham W (1984) Differential effects of aminophylline on the early and late antigen-induced bronchial obstruction in allergic sheep. Arch Exp Pathol Pharmacol 231: 586–601, Torphy T (1988) Action of mediators on airway smooth muscle: Functional antagonism as a mechanism for bronchodilator drugs. However, because they have a relatively narrow margin of safety and interact with many other drugs, they are no longer considered the first-choice bronchodilators. They are generally believed to act primarily by reversing the contraction of airway smooth muscle, although they may have additional properties that may be beneficial in the treatment of asthma … Drug name: Aminophylline - Intravenous. JAMA 259: 1678–1684, Ljungholm K, Kallen A, Persson CGA, Persson G (1990) The anti-asthma efficacy of xanthines added to regimens of non-glucocorticoid and glucocorticoid therapies. Theophylline is the most well known and most commonly used methylxanthine. info on nedocromil sodium: PREVENT & reduce symptoms of asthma, inhibits the inflammatory activites of mast cells, eosinophils, airway epithelial cells, sensory neurons, inhibits cytokine release, alters the creation and release of other inflammatory cytokines in airway epithelial cells, inhibits afferent fibers of … Bronchodilators are drugs that open the airways of the lungs. This service is more advanced with JavaScript available, Pharmacology of Asthma Amsterdam, Excerpta, pp 187–192, Barclay J, Whiting B, Addis GJ (1982) The influence of theophylline on maximal response to salbutamol in severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves. Am Rev Respir Dis 140: 974–980, Ishizaki T, Minegishi A, Morishita M, Odaijma Y, Kanagawa S, Nagai T, Yamaguchi M (1988) Plasma catecholamine concentrations during a 72-hour aminophylline infusion in children with acute asthma. It is used in the treatment of asthma, chronic bronchitis, and emphysema. In: Mygind N, Pipkorn U, Dahl R (eds) Rhinitis and asthma. Xanthines act as mild stimulants and help to improve breathing. This book (in paperback format) has sample TMC Practice Questions … CNS stimulant, smooth muscle relaxation, diuresis, and cerebral vasoconstriction. Trends Pharmacol Sci 1: 129–132, Guyatt GH, Townsend M, Pugsley O (1987) Bronchodilators in chronic airflow limitation. In: Andersson KE, Persson CGA (eds) Anti-asthma xanthines and adenosine. Title: Pharmacology Xanthines 1 Pharmacology - Xanthines. Theophylline, also known as 1,3-dimethylxanthine, is a phosphodiesterase inhibiting drug used in therapy for respiratory diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma under a variety of brand names. Life Sci 38: 1057–1072, Persson CGA, Erjefält I, Gustafasson B (1988) Xanthines - symptomatic or prophylactic in asthma? By Jim Clarke; 2 Why Use Xanthines? This is a preview of subscription content, Alexander MR, Dull WL, Kasik JE (1980) Treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with orally administered theophylline. Clin Allergy 17: 316–321, Finney M, Karlsson JA, Persson CGA (1985) Effects of bronchoconstrictors on a novel human small airway preparation. This makes them useful to treat asthma, emphysema, and chronic bronchitis. Am Rev Respir Dis 135: 1069–1074, Harada H, Ishizaka A, Yonemaru M, Mallick AA, Hatherill JR, Zheng H, Lilly CM, O’Hanley PT (1989) The effects of aminophylline and pentoxifylline on multiple organ damage after escherichia coli sepsis. Birkhauser, Basel, pp 37–54, Vilsvik JS, Persson CGA, Amundsen T et al. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools ... - this is a maintainace drug. J Allergy Cl in Immunol, Kjellin G, Persson CGA (1985) Xanthine derivatives. N Engl J 304: 71–75, Nielson CP, Crowley JJ, Cusak BJ, Vestal RE (1986) Therapeutic concentrations of theophylline and enprofylline potentiate catecholamine effects and inhibit leukocyte activation. Munksgaard, Copenhagen, pp 9–21, Persson CG A (1990b) Exudative indices in airways inflammation. Lancet 1: 299–301, Bergstrand H (1985) Xanthines as phosphodiesterase inhibitors. Beta-adrenergic bronchodilators dilate bronchial airways by relaxing the muscles that surround the … Birkhäuser, Basel, pp 137–155, Pollock J, Kiechel F, Cooper D, Weinberger M (1977) Relationship of serum theophylline concentration to inhibition of exercise-induced bronchospasm and comparison with cromolyn. Classify the drugs used in bronchial asthma with examples. One way to classify the drugs useful in bronchial asthma, is on the basis of their clinical use in a situation; depending on if a drug is more useful in an acute set-up or for long-term control of asthma. Asthma management, COPD management, and Apnea of prematurity. Xanthines--symptomatic or prophylactic in asthma? Xanthine is produced naturally by both plants and animals. Methylxanthines are a unique class of drug that are derived from the purine base xanthine. Am Rev Respir Dis 131: 747–751, Ther L, Maschaweck R, Hergott J (1957) Antagonismus zwischen Adenosine und Methylxanthinen am Reizleitungssystem des Herzens. of asthma and were subsequently maintained on a reg­ imen with the assigned medication for a further 11 months. Sympathomimetics and xanthines are widely used in the treatment of both acute and chronic asthma. There are multiple modes of action, and different drugs exert varying selectivities. Fed Proc 30: 1725–1729, Passamonte PM, Martinez A J (1984) Effect of inhaled atropine or metaproterenol in patients with chronic airway obstruction and therapeutic serum theophylline levels. Directions for New Antiasthma Drugs. Am Rev Respir Dis 141: 1167–1171, Lindenschmidt RC, Witschi HP (1985) Attenuation of pulmonary fibrosis in mice by aminophylline. It is for this reason that the xanthines are called bronchodilators.Theophylline, deriphylline and aminophylline are the generic types of drugs that belong to the xanthine class. Enprofylline is a new xanthine derivative that shares theophylline's bronchodilator properties but is free of theophylline's adenosine receptor antagonist activity. It works by relaxing the muscles around the airways so that they open up and you can breathe more easily. If stomach upset occurs, it may be taken with food. Drugs which are indicated for the treatment of asthma include the classes of beta 2 agonists, antimuscarinics, corticosteroids, leukotriene inhibitors and xanthines. Drug Drug Description; Oxtriphylline: A bronchodilator used for the treatment of asthma, bronchitis, COPD, and emphysema. J Allergy Clim Immunol 78: 660–667, O’Donnell SR, Erjefalt I, Persson CGA (1990) Early and late tracheobronchial plasma exudation by platelet activating factor administered to the airway mucosal surface in guinea-pigs: effect of WEB 2086 and enprofylline. Adhesive forces Description. The XANTHINES Xanthines, including caffeine and theophylline, come from a variety of naturally occurring sources. Check mild interactions to serious contraindications for up to 30 drugs, herbals, and supplements at a time. In: O’Donnell SR, Persson CGA (eds). For patients that are experiencing an acute asthma exacerbation, systemic steroids should be used to decrease inflammation. Therapeutic actions of Xanthines. Abstract. Theophylline is the most well known and most commonly used methylxanthine. Eur Respir J (in press), Lundblad KA, Persson CGA (1988) The epithelium and the pharmacology of guinea-pig tracheal tone in vitro. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 254: 65–70, Orange PP, Kaliner MA, Laraia PJ, Austen KF (1971) Immunological release of histamine and slow reacting substance of anaphylaxis from human lung II.