Pempas (GR): 'unit of five'; squad. Perikephalaios (GR): helmet. Machairophoros (GR): swordsman. Triakontoros (GR): thirty oared war ship. Pronomè (GR): foraging expedition. Hanson, Victor D., "Hoplite Battle as Ancient Greek Warfare: When, Where, and Why?" The Phalanx therefore presented a shield wall and a mass of spear points to the enemy, making frontal assaults much more difficult. It was made up of lots of smaller states. The rise of Athens and Sparta during this conflict led directly to the Peloponnesian War, which saw diversification of warfare. Palton (GR): javelin. Dathapatish (PE): 'commander of ten'; squad leader. Ekdromos (GR): 'out runner'; hoplite leaving the phalanx (GR) formation to chase light troops. Kontophoros (GR): spearman. Gorytos (GR): (1) quiver; (2) combined bowcase and quiver. The ancient Greek city-states developed a military formation called the phalanx, which were rows of shoulder-to-shoulder hoplites. The Spartan hegemony would last another 16 years, until, at the Battle of Leuctra (371) the Spartans were decisively defeated by the Theban general Epaminondas. Legion, a military organization, originally the largest permanent organization in the armies of ancient Rome. Thus, the whole war could be decided by a single field battle; victory was enforced by ransoming the fallen back to the defeated, called the 'Custom of the Dead Greeks'. Chiliarchia (GR): ‘unit of thousand’; military unit. Syntagma (GR): ‘building block’; military unit; battalion. After burning Eretria, the Persians landed at Marathon. Sphendonetès (GR): slinger. Stratègika (GR): generalship. It could throw 300 pound stones at walls and buildings Greek Military This is a hoplite, a Greek infantry soldier. Encheiridion (GR): dagger. Synoomotia (GR): file; squad. Holosidèros (GR): (1) heavily armoured soldier; (2) cataphract horseman. Van der Heyden, A. The revenge of the Persians was postponed 10 years by internal conflicts in the Persian Empire, until Darius's son Xerxes returned to Greece in 480 BC with a staggeringly large army (modern estimates suggest between 150,000–250,000 men). Van Wees, Hans, Greek Warfare: Myths and Realities, London: Duckworth, 2005. Basilikos (GR): royal. All Greek words have been transcribed in the Latin alphabet. [clarification needed]. In the third phase of the war however the use of more sophisticated stratagems eventually allowed the Spartans to force Athens to surrender. Kardaka (PE): Kurdish soldier. Systasis (GR): light infantry platoon. Anderson, J. K., Ancient Greek Horsemanship, Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1961. Hypomeioon (GR): 'inferior'; second grade citizen; Spartan lacking full rights as homoios but still subject to military service obligation. Sparta was an exception to this rule, as every Spartiate was a professional soldier. One alternative to disrupting the harvest was to ravage the countryside by uprooting trees, burning houses and crops and killing all who were not safe behind the walls of the city. Evolving from armed bands led by a warrior leader, city militia of part-time soldiers, providing their own equipment and perhaps including all the citizens of the city-state or polis, began to move warfare away from the control of private individuals and into the realm of the state. Miles medicus: medical orderly; army doctor. Syzeuxis (GR): parallel formation. Aspis (GR): shield. Symmachia (GR): alliance. In the aftermath, the Spartans were able to establish themselves as the dominant force in Greece for three decades. Taxiarchès (GR): officer. Once firmly unified, and then expanded, by Phillip II, Macedon possessed the resources that enabled it to dominate the weakened and divided states in southern Greece. Petasos (GR): hat. Klisis (GR): right/left-face. Dromos (GR): charge on the run. Speira (GR): military unit. Hekatontarchès (GR): ‘commander of hundred’; officer. Xiphidion (GR): (1) shortsword; (2) dagger. Paredros (GR): marine protecting helmsman. Drepanon (GR): battle-scythe. As the Thebans attempted to expand their influence over Boeotia, they inevitably incurred the ire of Sparta. Thyreos (GR): shield. At the decisive Battle of Leuctra (371 BC), the Thebans routed the allied army. Answer: Sparta. Stratia (GR): army. Peltastikon (GR): unit of peltastai (GR). The centre and right were staggered backwards from the left (an 'echelon' formation), so that the phalanx advanced obliquely. Synaspismos (GR): locked shields formation. Psilos (GR): light equipped soldier; skirmisher. These events permanently reduced Spartan power and prestige, and replaced the Spartan hegemony with a Theban one. Hègemoon (GR): commander. Stratia (GR): army. Ilarchès (GR): ‘wing commander’; cavalry officer. Hodkinson, Stephen, "Warfare, Wealth, and the Crisis of Spartiate Society," in John Rich and Graham Shipley, (eds. They were known as hoplites because of the shield that they used to protect them. Wandering tribes begin to settle in Greece: 1600 BCE: Mycenaean Greece: Bronze Age Greece was inhabited by the Mycenaean people. 1194 BCE: Trojan War: The Trojan war between the Greeks and the Trojans (inhabitants of Troy) began Uprooting trees was especially effective given the Greek reliance on the olive crop and the long time it takes new olive trees to reach maturity. These battles were short, bloody, and brutal, and thus required a high degree of discipline. Stratiootika (GR): (1) military affairs; (2) military service. There was increased emphasis on navies, sieges, mercenaries and economic warfare. In the early stages of Greek Warfare in the Archai… the things being prepared, provided, or procured (military) armament: arms, transportation, etc. Hipparchia (GR): cavalry regiment. Oothismos aspidoon (GR): ‘shield shoving’ or ‘shield pushing’; the sort of rugby scrummage which followed the clash of two phalanges (GR) when neither of them broke under the first charge. Answer: Sparta. Spolia (LA): spoils; plunder. Thyreophoros (GR): ‘shield-bearer’; skirmisher equipped with large shield. Peltarion (GR): light shield. Tèroon: recruit. Pilos (GR): (1) felt cap; (2) metal helmet shaped like a pilos (GR). Hypotaxis (GR): array behind main battle line. Lonchè (GR): spear; javelin. Tetrarchès (GR): commander of four files. Prodromos (GR): ‘someone who has run ahead’; (1) scout ; (2) Macedonian light cavalryman. Akinakès (GR): Persian shortsword or dagger. Asthippos (GR): ‘city cavalryman’; title borne by some Macedonian mounted troops. This puzzle was found on Daily pack. [5] Battles rarely lasted more than an hour. Hetarieia (GR): company; (1) aristocratic warrior band; (2) dining association. Pheidition (GR): Spartan military mess association. Hornblower, Simon, "Sticks, Stones, and Spartans: The Sociology of Spartan Violence," in Hans van Wees, War and Violence in Ancient Greece, London and Swansea: Duckworth and the Classical Press of Wales, 2000, pp. At least in the early classical period, hoplites were the primary force; light troops and cavalry generally protected the flanks and performed skirmishing, acting as support troops for the core heavy infantry. The Army of Alexander the Great Pezakontistès (GR): infantry skirmisher; javelineer. Many of these would have been mercenary troops, hired from outlying regions of Greece. Dilochitès (GR): double-file leader; junior officer. Tensions resulting from this, and the rise of Athens and Sparta as pre-eminent powers during the war led directly to the Peloponnesian War, which saw further development of the nature of warfare, strategy and tactics. The defeat of a hoplite army in this way demonstrates the changes in both troops and tactic which had occurred in Greek Warfare. Akontistès (GR): javelineer. Stasis (GR): civil strife; civil war. A. M. and Scullard, H. H., (eds. Exoomis (GR): sleeveless tunic fastened at the shoulders. Hekatontarchia (GR): ‘unit of hundred’; military unit; company. Snodgrass, A., "The Hoplite Reform and History," Journal of Hellenic Studies, Vol. Metoopon (GR): front of a battle-line. Skytale (GR): ‘stick’; (1) broken half of a stick used to verify the origin of a message; (2)Spartan ‘dogtags’ made of a wooden identification sign. Sèmeiophoros (GR): standard-bearer. Persia switched sides, which ended the war, in return for the cities of Ionia and Spartan non-interference in Asia Minor. Dathabam (PE):'unit of ten'; squad. There are other daily puzzles for July 3 2017 Mystic Words: Ancient Greek military power Mystic words; Noisy opposition Mystic words The war (or wars, since it is often divided into three periods) was for much of the time a stalemate, punctuated with occasional bouts of activity. Cavalry had always existed in Greek armies of the classical era but the cost of horses made it far more expensive than hoplite armor, limiting cavalrymen to nobles and the very wealthy (social class of hippeis). Zooiarchos (GR): elephant commander. During that time, Odysseus and his men faced numerous challenges, including being kidnapped by a cyclops, menaced by sirens, and … There are a large number of religious festivals that were celebrated by the Greeks with great enthusiasm. Xenagia (GR): 'foreign legion'; military unit. Symmachos (GR): ally. Tattoo (GR): to array; to deploy. Phylè (GR): tribe. Kagan, Donald, The Peloponnesian War, New York, NY: Penguin Books, 2004. Engels, Donald, Alexander the Great and the Logistics of the Macedonian Army, Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1978. The war petered out after 394 BC, with a stalemate punctuated with minor engagements. Polis (GR): city state. Machaira (GR): sword. Although both sides suffered setbacks and victories, the first phase essentially ended in stalemate, as neither league had the power to neutralise the other. Epitagma (GR): supporting force. Campaigns would therefore often be restricted to summer. Zygon (GR): rank. gulf of corinth Which member of Spartan society best fits this statement: "Strict training was necessary to encourage military discipline and loyalty to Sparta." The scale and scope of warfare in Ancient Greece changed dramatically as a result of the Greco-Persian Wars. led to the rise of the city-states (Poleis). Because hoplites were all protected by their own shield and others’ shields and spears, they were relatively safe as long as the formation didn't break. How Ancient Sparta's Harsh Military System Trained Boys Into Fierce Warriors The Greek city-state imposed brutal training and contests that began at age 7. Petrobolos (GR): ‘stonethrower’; torsion gun. Naumachia (GR): sea battle. Skeuophoros (GR): baggage-carrier; servant. Proptoosis (GR): levelling of spears to the front of the battle-line. A united Macedonian empire did not long survive Alexander's death, and soon split into the Hellenistic kingdoms of the Diadochi (Alexander's generals). He took the development of the phalanx to its logical completion, arming his 'phalangites' (for they were assuredly not hoplites) with a fearsome 6 m (20 ft) pike, the 'sarissa'. Kopis (GR): slashing sword; falchion. Kyrtè phalanx (GR): convex battle-order. The Greek navy, despite their lack of experience, also proved their worth holding back the Persian fleet whilst the army still held the pass. Knèmis (GR): greave. The second major challenge Sparta faced was fatal to its hegemony, and even to its position as a first-rate power in Greece. Meros (GR): part; subdivision; unit. Shipbuilders would also experience sudden increases in their production demands. Panoplia (GR): war-gear; complete suit of military equipment. Anastrophè (GR): (1) back-turn; (2) wheeling manoeuvre. The losses in the ten years of the Theban hegemony left all the Greek city-states weakened and divided. Katoikia (GR): military colony. Proknèmis (GR): greave. Rawlings, Louis, "Alternative Agonies: Hoplite Martial and Combat Experiences beyond the Phalanx," in Hans van Wees, War and Violence in Ancient Greece, London and Swansea: Duckworth and the Classical Press of Wales, 2000, pp. The visionary Athenian politician Themistocles had successfully persuaded his fellow citizens to build a huge fleet in 483/82 BC to combat the Persian threat (and thus to effectively abandon their hoplite army, since there were not men enough for both). Aichmophoros (GR): spearbearer. The secondary weapon of a hoplite was the xiphos, a short sword used when the soldier's spear was broken or lost while fighting. However, these kingdoms were still enormous states, and continued to fight in the same manner as Phillip and Alexander's armies had. This glossary offers an explanation of Greek (GR) and a few Persian (PE) terms and expressions associated with ancient Greek warfare. Distinct meanings of the same word are indicated by numbers between brackets. As the Thebans were joined by many erstwhile Spartan allies, the Spartans were powerless to resist this invasion. Wheeler, E., "The General as Hoplite," in Hanson, Victor D., (ed. ), Hoplites, London: 1991, pp. Modern Greek military ranks are based on Ancient Greek & Byzantine terminology, even though the ranks correspond to those of other Western armies. One major reason for Phillip's success in conquering Greece was the break with Hellenic military traditions that he made. Athens had little choice but to surrender; and was stripped of her city walls, overseas possessions and navy. Nikè (GR): victory. When in combat, the whole formation would consistently press forward trying to break the enemy formation; thus, when two phalanx formations engaged, the struggle essentially became a pushing match,[4] in which, as a rule, the deeper phalanx would almost always win, with few recorded exceptions. Syngenès (GR): ‘relative’; Persian guard cavalryman. 146–176. The Athenian dominated Delian League of cities and islands extirpated Persian garrisons from Macedon and Thrace, before eventually freeing the Ionian cities from Persian rule. Pyrgos (GR): tower. Finally Phillip sought to establish his own hegemony over the southern Greek city-states, and after defeating the combined forces of Athens and Thebes, the two most powerful states, at the Battle of Chaeronea in 338 BC, succeeded. Lineothoorax (GR): linen corselet. Kybernètès (GR): helmsman. Glossary of Roman military terms, A | B | C | D | E | G | H | I | K | L | M | N | O | P | R | S | T | X | Z. Agèma (GR): ‘leading part’; elite unit. Keleusthès (GR): naval officer responsible for setting and maintaining the rowing speed. Politès (GR): citizen; man enjoying citizenship. Much more lightly armored, the Macedonian phalanx was not so much a shield-wall as a spear-wall. Lochos (GR): (1) military unit; (2) file of men. Famously, Leonidas's men held the much larger Persian army at the pass (where their numbers were less of an advantage) for three days, the hoplites again proving their superiority. After the war, ambitions of many Greek states dramatically increased. Leiden/Boston: Brill, 2018. Far from the previously limited and formalized form of conflict, the Peloponnesian War transformed into an all-out struggle between city-states, complete with atrocities on a large scale; shattering religious and cultural taboos, devastating vast swathes of countryside and destroying whole cities.[11]. The Macedonian phalanx was a supreme defensive formation, but was not intended to be decisive offensively; instead, it was used to pin down the enemy infantry, whilst more mobile forces (such as cavalry) outflanked them. This is one of the first known examples of both the tactic of local concentration of force, and the tactic of 'refusing a flank'. The two phalanxes would smash into each other in hopes of quickly breaking the enemy force's line. Thanvabara (PE): archers; bowmen. Chitoon (GR): tunic. Phalanx (GR): ‘stick’; (1) small group of promachoi; (2) close-order military formation of heavy infantrymen equipped with thrusting spears and shields. Pylooros (GR): gate keeper. The Athenians thus avoided battle on land, since they could not possibly win, and instead dominated the sea, blockading the Peloponnesus whilst maintaining their trade. Koinon (GR): association; unit. In ancient times, Greece wasn't a single country like it is today. Alexander’s Macedonian army had spears called sarissas that were 18 feet long, far longer than the 6–9 foot Greek dory. With revolutionary tactics, King Phillip II brought most of Greece under his sway, paving the way for the conquest of "the known world" by his son Alexander the Great. Asapatish (PE): cavalry commander. Taxis: (1) battle order; (2) military unit; regiment. 'Hoplite' can be translated as 'man-at-arms'. Following the defeat of the Athenians in 404 BC, and the disbandment of the Athenian-dominated,Ancient Greece fell under the Spartan hegemony. Stratiootika (GR): (1) military affairs; (2) military service. Melas zoomos (GR): ‘black soup’; infamous Spartan blood broth. This alliance thus removed the constraints on the type of armed forces that the Greeks could use. Unlike the fiercely independent (and small) city-states, Macedon was a tribal kingdom, ruled by an autocratic king, and importantly, covering a larger area. Baivarabam (PE): 'unit of ten thousand'; Persian military unit cf Greek term myrias. Strateuma (GR): military campaign. Milex: soldier. [3] The opposing sides would collide viciously, possibly terrifying many of the hoplites of the front row. Strateusis (GR): military campaign. After they refused to disband their army, an army of approximately 10,000 Spartans and Pelopennesians marched north to challenge the Thebans. Thoorakitès (GR): soldier wearing body armour. This was the first major challenge Sparta faced. Hippakontistès (GR): mounted javelinman. Polemios (GR): enemy. Epistatès (GR): rear-ranker. The Greco-Persian Wars (499–448 BC) were the result of attempts by the Persian Emperor Darius the Great, and then his successor Xerxes I to subjugate Ancient Greece. Ouragos (GR): file closer. Ektaxis (GR): battle order. Pelekys (GR): battle-axe or warhammer. Peltophoros (GR): 'shieldbearer'; soldier armed with light shield. Logas (GR): picked soldier. 233–260. Hippikon (GR): cavalry. Hippos (GR): horse. Hetairos (GR): companion; (1) aristocratic warrior; (2) Macedonian heavy cavalryman. Strateusis (GR): military campaign. In an attempt to bolster the Thebans' position, Epaminondas again marched on the Pelopennese in 362 BC. The chigi vase, dated to around 650 BC, is the earliest depiction of a hoplite in full battle array. Soomatophylax (GR): ‘body guard’; (1) elite Macedonian infantry guard; (2) senior Macedonian general. Tetrarchia (GR): unit of four files. However, from the very beginning, it was clear that the Spartan hegemony was shaky; the Athenians, despite their crushing defeat, restored their democracy but just one year later, ejecting the Sparta-approved oligarchy. Although alliances between city-states were commonplace, the scale of this league was a novelty, and the first time that the Greeks had united in such a way to face an external threat. Harpagè (GR): looting; plundering. Lazenby, John F., "Hoplite Warfare," in John Hackett, (ed. Toxotès (GR): archer. Lonchophoros (GR): spearman; javelineer. [2] Although very heavy (8–15 kg or 18–33 lb), the design of this shield was such that it could be supported on the shoulder. If a hoplite escaped, he would sometimes be forced to drop his cumbersome aspis, thereby disgracing himself to his friends and family. Diastèma (GR): interval. The Athenian general Iphicrates had his troops make repeated hit and run attacks on the Spartans, who, having neither peltasts nor cavalry, could not respond effectively. The expanding early Roman Republic found the Greek phalanx formation too Kestrosphendonè (GR): special type of bolt used by slingers as a short range missile. The Greek comes from aggelion which simply means "message or news." Poliorkia (GR): siege. Next time when searching the web for a clue, try using the search term “Ancient Greek military power crossword” or “Ancient Greek military power crossword clue” when searching for help with your puzzles. Best, Jan G. P., Thracian Peltasts and their Influence on the Greek Warfare, Groningen: Wolters-Noordhoff, 1969. Arstibara (PE): ‘spearbearers’; Persian guardsmen. This 'combined arms' approach was furthered by the extensive use of skirmishers, such as peltasts. Sekunda, Nick, Elite 7: The Ancient Greeks, Oxford: Osprey, 1986. 125–166. Following the eventual defeat of the Athenians in 404 BC, and the disbandment of the Athenian-dominated Delian League, Ancient Greece fell under the hegemony of Sparta. Thoorax (GR): body armour. The revolt was crushed by 494 BC, but Darius resolved to bring mainland Greece under his dominion. to the Present, New York, NY: Free Press, 1989. Pezon (GR): infantry. Following this victory, the Thebans first secured their power-base in Boeotia, before marching on Sparta. Ilè (GR): ‘wing’; military unit. History >> Ancient Greece. Pyknosis (GR): close-order formation. Tagma (GR): military unit. Homoios (GR): ‘peer’; Spartan enjoying full citizenship. The rise of Macedon and her successors thus sounded the death knell for the distinctive way of war found in Ancient Greece; and instead contributed to the 'superpower' warfare which would dominate the ancient world between 350 and 150 BC. In order to outflank the isthmus, Xerxes needed to use this fleet, and in turn therefore needed to defeat the Greek fleet; similarly, the Greeks needed to neutralise the Persian fleet to ensure their safety. Agoogè (GR): Spartan upbringing. Skytalis (GR): ‘little stick’; Spartan ‘dogtags’ made of a wooden identification sign. Dipèchiakè (GR): space of 2 cubits separating two tholepins in a file of oarsmen, probably some 98cm. After the loss of Athenian ships and men in the Sicilian expedition, Sparta was able to foment rebellion amongst the Athenian league, which therefore massively reduced the ability of the Athenians to continue the war. Nevertheless, it was an important innovation, one which was developed much further in later conflicts. Epibatès (GR): marine. Tiara (GR): characteristic Persian headgear; hood. Assemblies or groups of elite citizens sanctioned war, and generals (strategoi) came to be accountable for their actions and were often elected for fixed terms or specific military operations. Bandaka (PE): 'bondsmen' or 'retainers'. It also allowed a higher proportion of the soldiers to be actively engaged in combat at a given time (rather than just those in the front rank). Stratiootès (GR): soldier. Pezomachos (GR): infantryman. At one point, the Greeks even attempted an invasion of Cyprus and Egypt (which proved disastrous), demonstrating a major legacy of the Persian Wars: warfare in Greece had moved beyond the seasonal squabbles between city-states, to coordinated international actions involving huge armies. The Thebans marched into Messenia, and freed it from Sparta; this was a fatal blow to Sparta, since Messenia had provided most of the helots which supported the Spartan warrior society. 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